New recipes

In This ‘Robin Hood’ Café the Poor Eat for Free and the Rich Pay for It

In This ‘Robin Hood’ Café the Poor Eat for Free and the Rich Pay for It


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

The Robin Hood café in Spain is run by a charity organization and allows wealthy people to treat those in need to a meal

Charity never felt so inclusive before.

In the spirit of Robin Hood’s mantra — “steal from the rich and give to the poor” — a café of the same name has opened in Madrid. Run by the charitable organization Mensajeros de la Paz (Messengers of Peace), the Robin Hood restaurant serves a sit-down meal every night to around 100 homeless people and others who cannot afford to eat.

Their meals are paid for by customers who come in for breakfast and lunch. Those proceeds are then used to fund a free dinner. Paying and non-paying patrons alike of the Robin Hood restaurant are treated equally and are all served by volunteer chefs and waitstaff.

“The inspiration came from Pope Francis, who’s spoken again and again about the importance of giving people dignity, whether it’s through bread or through work," Father Ángel García, who started Mensajeros de la Paz 54 years ago, told the Guardian.

Robin Hood, the latest initiative of the organization, opened last week to rave reviews from its customers:

“The food here is great and very elegant,” one homeless diner, Ramón Luis, told The Guardian. “I’d give it loads of stars and I’ll be back tomorrow.”


Bannock.

The Métis call bannock la galette. Photo circa 1900, Saskatchewan.

Carbohydrate-rich and simple to make, bannock soon became a staple for Indigenous people across Canada. It goes without saying, however, that part of this was also due to colonization and the removal of Indigenous peoples from their land and traditional food sources (Colombo, 2006). Rations of flour, lard, sugar and eggs became the norm and bannock became a deep-rooted part of Indigenous culture. This can be a tricky subject, and I won’t delve into this very much, but what I have found during my research is that cooking, sharing, and eating bannock can be an empowering experience for all.

“Bannock can go far and can feed many, but it has to be done with love,’ she said, standing in the newly renovated cafe. “Bannock was what we had to eat, but now I want to pay homage to the dignity of our women who have learned to turn a negative into a positive’ (Gilpin, 2017).

The Ethnobotany of Bannock:

Folklorist and food writer Lucy Long writes that “prior to the loss of traditional foods, most indigenous people had some version of a breadlike staple, often called bannock, made of ground bread root, acorn, bean, or corn flour mixed with water and fried in animal fat or cooked on hot, flat stones’ (2015, pg. 446).

Ethnobotanist Nancy Turner reiterates this in an article about bannock, by suggesting “unleavened breads made from the starch/flour of bracken rhizomes were probably “cooked/baked on rocks over the fire, in sand, or in cooking pits or earth ovens’ (Bell, 2018). Another example of a pre-colonial version of bannock was camas bulbs that were baked, dried and chopped or flattened, then shaped into cakes or loaves (Colombo, 2016).

Some Interior First Nations cooked black tree lichen, Bryoria fremontii Tuck., and dried them into cakes, and, similar to bannock, they were eaten on long journeys as a sustainer (Turner, 1997, pg. 35).

A modern version of black lichen bread. Retrieved from: https://www.amazing-food.com/lichen-bread/

Post-colonial bannock, the white flour variety, is widely intertwined with ethnobotany.

The Nlaka’pamux of British Columbia added bitterroot, Lewisia rediviva, to their bannock. It was considered a delicacy, almost a desert, often alongside Saskatoon berries, Amelanchier alnifoli (Bandringa, 1999, pg. 22).

Black mountain huckleberries, or mountain bilberries, Vaccinium membranaceum, were added to bannock by the Chipewyan people of northern Saskatchewan (Kuhnlein & Turner, 1991, pg. 118).

The Woods Cree, also of Saskatchewan, made birch sap into a syrup, thickening it with flour, and ate in on bannock (Kuhnlein & Turner, 1991, pg. 90).

Some Indigenous groups wrapped the dough around a green, hardwood stick and toasted it over an open fire (Bannock Awareness, 2001, pg. 16).

Bannock on a stick. Retrieved from: https://www.canadiangeographic.ca/article/bannock-recipe

Cultural Value of Bannock:

In researching the history of bannock in Canada, I stumbled across a book called Bannockology. A Community Collaboration of Stories, Art, Essays, Recipes and Poems about Bannock. I contacted the publisher to obtain a copy, and they generously gifted me one. It was compiled by Peter Morin, the organizer of the “People’s Bannock.’ This event’s intention was to bring awareness to mineral extraction in Northern B.C. by attempting to make the world’s largest bannock (at 50 feet long!) – “Bannockology is an anthology of anecdotes, recipes, poetry and insights about bannock, the ubiquitous bread that is a part of every First Nations social event, private or public.’

With over 30 entries about bannock, Bannockology helps define how important this staple is to Indigenous peoples across Canada:

Bannock is sort of like our “Jesus-bread’, it is the “flesh’ of our culture.

Bannock has two distinct functions amongst us Indian peoples: first function — It fills our bellies, second function — it fills our souls’

Nanette Jackson (Morin, 2009, pg. 25).

I found many other quotes in various publications that reflect how culturally important bannock is to virtually every Indigenous group in Canada:

“Yet, many Elders tell me that they get sick on ‘Whiteman’s foods,’ and that they are much happier eating wind-dried salmon and bannock every day. It is also the case that salmon, bannock, berries, and other ‘Indian foods’ are locally prepared by people whom one knows, and under known circumstances. Such food, ‘prepared with love,’ provides far more than physical nourishment’ (Palmer, 2005, pg. 76).

For the Inuit, this staple was a “legacy of the nineteenth century contact with whalers’ (Billson & Mancini, 2007, pg. 42). Made with seal oil so it would not freeze, bannock became a traditional food of the Inuit. When researching their book “Inuit Women, Their Powerful Spirit in a Century of Change, authors Billson and Mancini did some more informal “natural gathering’ interviews with Inuit women over tea and bannock (xiv). This simple offering (of bannock) shows the importance of bannock in the Inuit culture.

Annie Pootoogook, Coleman Stove with Robin Hood Flour and Tenderflake. 2004. The modern makings of bannock.

When I was in the Canadian Arctic last summer, I had the pleasure on numerous occasions to eat bannock made by an Inuk I was working with. There was even a recipe for bannock on the camp fridge which was at 81.4 degrees north! Inuit bannock, or palauga, is rich part of the Inuit heritage.

Recipe for bannock on the fridge at camp. Quttinirpaaq National Park. Ellesmere Island. 81.4 degrees north!

Bannock with muskox chili that I made in the Arctic last summer.

Bannock plays a vital role in the lives of Indigenous peoples as a traditional food throughout Canada.

“Bannock is viewed as an important food for Aboriginal residents of Winnipeg’s North End neighbourhood, despite its historical associations with European settlers. Bannock is associated with family histories, cultural events and ceremonies, and food security. Bannock is seen as having a deep connection to identity’ (Cyr & Slater, 2016, pg., 59).

“Bread – white, store bought bread is not the way of our people, it’s not! Bannock is the way. It’s a staple food, it gives you strength it gives you energy. It just makes you strong. It’s so important to eat bannock, to have bannock’ (Cyr & Slater, 2016, pg., 63).

Making Bannock:

With literally hundreds and hundreds of recipes to choose from, I decided on a recipe I found in a publication called “Bannock Awareness.’ This publication was produced by The Ministry of Forests and Range in 2001 to commemorate Aboriginal Awareness Day, which is celebrated annually on the 21st day of June. “Bannock Awareness’ is a collection of favourite bannock related recipes and of little known facts about First Nations history and culture in British Columbia, the province where I live.

Basic Bannock Recipe – Fried or Stick-cooked

1 cup flour

1 tsp baking powder

1/4 tsp salt

3 tbsp margarine/butter

2 tbsp skim milk powder (optional)

Sift together the dry ingredients. Cut in the margarine until the mixture resembles a coarse meal (at this point it can be sealed it in a ziplock bag for field use). Grease and heat a frying pan. Working quickly, add enough COLD water to the pre-packaged dry mix to make a firm dough. Once the water is thoroughly mixed into the dough, form the dough into cakes about 1/2 inch thick. Dust the cakes lightly with flour to make them easier to handle. Lay the bannock cakes in the warm frying pan. Hold them over the heat, rotating the pan a little. Once a bottom crust has formed and the dough has hardened enough to hold together, you can turn the bannock cakes. Cooking takes 12-15 minutes. If you are in the field and you don’t have a frying pan, make a thicker dough by adding less water and roll the dough into a long ribbon (no wider than 1 inch). Wind this around a preheated green, hardwood stick and cook about 8 inches over a fire, turning occasionally, until the bannock is cooked.

Delicious bannock with Nancy Turner jam!

Conclusion:

Bannock is delicious!

And despite its ties to colonialism in Canada, bannock embodies Indigenous culture and identity, both past and present. Whether made of white flour or ground camas bulbs, on a stick or in a pan, with berries, birch syrup or butter, bannock is an important traditional Indigenous food. With deep ethnobotanical roots, bannock has been integrated into the lives of the many Indigenous groups in Canada, creating comfort and community during many uncertain times.

“Fill your heart with happiness and love before starting to bake or cook this will be your secret ingredient that will make this recipe taste so good! Think of the smiling faces of your family and friends as they enjoy this wonderful bannock that you have taken the time to prepare with your own loving hands”

Kate Brant (Morin, 2009, pg. 62).

References:

Ballantyne, E. (2014). Dechinta Bush University. Mobilizing a knowledge economy of reciprocity, resurgence, and decolonization. Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 67-85. Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society.

Bandringa, R. (1999). The Ethnobotany and Descriptive Ecology of Bitterroot, Lewisia rediviva Pursh (Portulacaceae), in the Lower Thompson River Valley, British Columbia: A Salient Root Food of the Nlaka’pamux First Nation (Master’s thesis). The University of Victoria. Retrieved January 18, 2108, from https://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/ubctheses/831/items/1.0099512

Bell, A. (2018, August 4). Bannock and Canada’s First Peoples. Retrieved January 18, 2018, from https://fooddaycanada.ca/featured-article/bannock-canadas-first-peoples/

Billson, J., & Mancini, K. (2007). Inuit Women Their Powerful Spirit in a Century of Change. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Blackstock, M. (2001). Bannock Awareness. Retrieved January 4, 2018, from https://www.for.gov.bc.ca/rsi/fnb/bannockawareness.pdf

Colombo, J. (2006, February 6). Bannock. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 18, 2018, from https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/bannock/

Cyr, M., & Slater, J. (2016). Got Bannock? Traditional Indigenous Bread in Winnipeg’s North End. Chapter 4. Retrieved January 17, 2018, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311202983_Got_Bannock_Traditional_Indigenous_Bread_in_Winnipeg%27s_North_End

Gilpin, E. (2017, July 11). At ‘BigHeart Bannock,’ Resilience and Resistance in Food Made Well. The Tyee. Retrieved January 4, 2018, from https://thetyee.ca/Culture/2017/07/11/BigHeart-Bannock-Resilience-Resistance-Food/

Kuhnlein, H., & Turner, N. (1991). Traditional Plant Foods of Canadian Indigenous Peoples: Nutrition, Botany and Use. Amsterdam, NL: Gordon and Breach.

Long, L. (2015). Ethnic American Food Today: A Cultural Encyclopedia, Volume 1. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Morin, P. (2009). Banockology, A Community Collaboration of Stories, Art, Essays, Recipes and Poems about Bannock. Victoria, BC: Open Space Arts Societ y.

Turner, N. (1997). Food Plants of the Interior First Peoples. Victoria, BC: Royal BC Museum.

Palmer, A. (2005). Maps of Experience: The Anchoring of Land to Story in Secwepemc Discourse. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Christy Shaw

Greetings everyone. This is Christy Shaw, residing in Revelstoke, British Columbia, Canada. I have been enrolled in the Ethnobotany Certificate Program since the summer of 2016. I have long had an interest in plants as medicine, but I always felt disconnected from their origins and traditional uses, even through my training as a Chartered Herbalist. I wanted to further my knowledge of plants and the relationships people have with plants, and this looked like the perfect course to do so. I am not sure where this certificate will take me, but it will be a great basis for further studies. I own and operate a health food store in my community, and spend my free time traipsing through the woods, always taking the time to stop and smell the roses and taste the snowflakes.


Bannock.

The Métis call bannock la galette. Photo circa 1900, Saskatchewan.

Carbohydrate-rich and simple to make, bannock soon became a staple for Indigenous people across Canada. It goes without saying, however, that part of this was also due to colonization and the removal of Indigenous peoples from their land and traditional food sources (Colombo, 2006). Rations of flour, lard, sugar and eggs became the norm and bannock became a deep-rooted part of Indigenous culture. This can be a tricky subject, and I won’t delve into this very much, but what I have found during my research is that cooking, sharing, and eating bannock can be an empowering experience for all.

“Bannock can go far and can feed many, but it has to be done with love,’ she said, standing in the newly renovated cafe. “Bannock was what we had to eat, but now I want to pay homage to the dignity of our women who have learned to turn a negative into a positive’ (Gilpin, 2017).

The Ethnobotany of Bannock:

Folklorist and food writer Lucy Long writes that “prior to the loss of traditional foods, most indigenous people had some version of a breadlike staple, often called bannock, made of ground bread root, acorn, bean, or corn flour mixed with water and fried in animal fat or cooked on hot, flat stones’ (2015, pg. 446).

Ethnobotanist Nancy Turner reiterates this in an article about bannock, by suggesting “unleavened breads made from the starch/flour of bracken rhizomes were probably “cooked/baked on rocks over the fire, in sand, or in cooking pits or earth ovens’ (Bell, 2018). Another example of a pre-colonial version of bannock was camas bulbs that were baked, dried and chopped or flattened, then shaped into cakes or loaves (Colombo, 2016).

Some Interior First Nations cooked black tree lichen, Bryoria fremontii Tuck., and dried them into cakes, and, similar to bannock, they were eaten on long journeys as a sustainer (Turner, 1997, pg. 35).

A modern version of black lichen bread. Retrieved from: https://www.amazing-food.com/lichen-bread/

Post-colonial bannock, the white flour variety, is widely intertwined with ethnobotany.

The Nlaka’pamux of British Columbia added bitterroot, Lewisia rediviva, to their bannock. It was considered a delicacy, almost a desert, often alongside Saskatoon berries, Amelanchier alnifoli (Bandringa, 1999, pg. 22).

Black mountain huckleberries, or mountain bilberries, Vaccinium membranaceum, were added to bannock by the Chipewyan people of northern Saskatchewan (Kuhnlein & Turner, 1991, pg. 118).

The Woods Cree, also of Saskatchewan, made birch sap into a syrup, thickening it with flour, and ate in on bannock (Kuhnlein & Turner, 1991, pg. 90).

Some Indigenous groups wrapped the dough around a green, hardwood stick and toasted it over an open fire (Bannock Awareness, 2001, pg. 16).

Bannock on a stick. Retrieved from: https://www.canadiangeographic.ca/article/bannock-recipe

Cultural Value of Bannock:

In researching the history of bannock in Canada, I stumbled across a book called Bannockology. A Community Collaboration of Stories, Art, Essays, Recipes and Poems about Bannock. I contacted the publisher to obtain a copy, and they generously gifted me one. It was compiled by Peter Morin, the organizer of the “People’s Bannock.’ This event’s intention was to bring awareness to mineral extraction in Northern B.C. by attempting to make the world’s largest bannock (at 50 feet long!) – “Bannockology is an anthology of anecdotes, recipes, poetry and insights about bannock, the ubiquitous bread that is a part of every First Nations social event, private or public.’

With over 30 entries about bannock, Bannockology helps define how important this staple is to Indigenous peoples across Canada:

Bannock is sort of like our “Jesus-bread’, it is the “flesh’ of our culture.

Bannock has two distinct functions amongst us Indian peoples: first function — It fills our bellies, second function — it fills our souls’

Nanette Jackson (Morin, 2009, pg. 25).

I found many other quotes in various publications that reflect how culturally important bannock is to virtually every Indigenous group in Canada:

“Yet, many Elders tell me that they get sick on ‘Whiteman’s foods,’ and that they are much happier eating wind-dried salmon and bannock every day. It is also the case that salmon, bannock, berries, and other ‘Indian foods’ are locally prepared by people whom one knows, and under known circumstances. Such food, ‘prepared with love,’ provides far more than physical nourishment’ (Palmer, 2005, pg. 76).

For the Inuit, this staple was a “legacy of the nineteenth century contact with whalers’ (Billson & Mancini, 2007, pg. 42). Made with seal oil so it would not freeze, bannock became a traditional food of the Inuit. When researching their book “Inuit Women, Their Powerful Spirit in a Century of Change, authors Billson and Mancini did some more informal “natural gathering’ interviews with Inuit women over tea and bannock (xiv). This simple offering (of bannock) shows the importance of bannock in the Inuit culture.

Annie Pootoogook, Coleman Stove with Robin Hood Flour and Tenderflake. 2004. The modern makings of bannock.

When I was in the Canadian Arctic last summer, I had the pleasure on numerous occasions to eat bannock made by an Inuk I was working with. There was even a recipe for bannock on the camp fridge which was at 81.4 degrees north! Inuit bannock, or palauga, is rich part of the Inuit heritage.

Recipe for bannock on the fridge at camp. Quttinirpaaq National Park. Ellesmere Island. 81.4 degrees north!

Bannock with muskox chili that I made in the Arctic last summer.

Bannock plays a vital role in the lives of Indigenous peoples as a traditional food throughout Canada.

“Bannock is viewed as an important food for Aboriginal residents of Winnipeg’s North End neighbourhood, despite its historical associations with European settlers. Bannock is associated with family histories, cultural events and ceremonies, and food security. Bannock is seen as having a deep connection to identity’ (Cyr & Slater, 2016, pg., 59).

“Bread – white, store bought bread is not the way of our people, it’s not! Bannock is the way. It’s a staple food, it gives you strength it gives you energy. It just makes you strong. It’s so important to eat bannock, to have bannock’ (Cyr & Slater, 2016, pg., 63).

Making Bannock:

With literally hundreds and hundreds of recipes to choose from, I decided on a recipe I found in a publication called “Bannock Awareness.’ This publication was produced by The Ministry of Forests and Range in 2001 to commemorate Aboriginal Awareness Day, which is celebrated annually on the 21st day of June. “Bannock Awareness’ is a collection of favourite bannock related recipes and of little known facts about First Nations history and culture in British Columbia, the province where I live.

Basic Bannock Recipe – Fried or Stick-cooked

1 cup flour

1 tsp baking powder

1/4 tsp salt

3 tbsp margarine/butter

2 tbsp skim milk powder (optional)

Sift together the dry ingredients. Cut in the margarine until the mixture resembles a coarse meal (at this point it can be sealed it in a ziplock bag for field use). Grease and heat a frying pan. Working quickly, add enough COLD water to the pre-packaged dry mix to make a firm dough. Once the water is thoroughly mixed into the dough, form the dough into cakes about 1/2 inch thick. Dust the cakes lightly with flour to make them easier to handle. Lay the bannock cakes in the warm frying pan. Hold them over the heat, rotating the pan a little. Once a bottom crust has formed and the dough has hardened enough to hold together, you can turn the bannock cakes. Cooking takes 12-15 minutes. If you are in the field and you don’t have a frying pan, make a thicker dough by adding less water and roll the dough into a long ribbon (no wider than 1 inch). Wind this around a preheated green, hardwood stick and cook about 8 inches over a fire, turning occasionally, until the bannock is cooked.

Delicious bannock with Nancy Turner jam!

Conclusion:

Bannock is delicious!

And despite its ties to colonialism in Canada, bannock embodies Indigenous culture and identity, both past and present. Whether made of white flour or ground camas bulbs, on a stick or in a pan, with berries, birch syrup or butter, bannock is an important traditional Indigenous food. With deep ethnobotanical roots, bannock has been integrated into the lives of the many Indigenous groups in Canada, creating comfort and community during many uncertain times.

“Fill your heart with happiness and love before starting to bake or cook this will be your secret ingredient that will make this recipe taste so good! Think of the smiling faces of your family and friends as they enjoy this wonderful bannock that you have taken the time to prepare with your own loving hands”

Kate Brant (Morin, 2009, pg. 62).

References:

Ballantyne, E. (2014). Dechinta Bush University. Mobilizing a knowledge economy of reciprocity, resurgence, and decolonization. Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 67-85. Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society.

Bandringa, R. (1999). The Ethnobotany and Descriptive Ecology of Bitterroot, Lewisia rediviva Pursh (Portulacaceae), in the Lower Thompson River Valley, British Columbia: A Salient Root Food of the Nlaka’pamux First Nation (Master’s thesis). The University of Victoria. Retrieved January 18, 2108, from https://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/ubctheses/831/items/1.0099512

Bell, A. (2018, August 4). Bannock and Canada’s First Peoples. Retrieved January 18, 2018, from https://fooddaycanada.ca/featured-article/bannock-canadas-first-peoples/

Billson, J., & Mancini, K. (2007). Inuit Women Their Powerful Spirit in a Century of Change. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Blackstock, M. (2001). Bannock Awareness. Retrieved January 4, 2018, from https://www.for.gov.bc.ca/rsi/fnb/bannockawareness.pdf

Colombo, J. (2006, February 6). Bannock. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 18, 2018, from https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/bannock/

Cyr, M., & Slater, J. (2016). Got Bannock? Traditional Indigenous Bread in Winnipeg’s North End. Chapter 4. Retrieved January 17, 2018, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311202983_Got_Bannock_Traditional_Indigenous_Bread_in_Winnipeg%27s_North_End

Gilpin, E. (2017, July 11). At ‘BigHeart Bannock,’ Resilience and Resistance in Food Made Well. The Tyee. Retrieved January 4, 2018, from https://thetyee.ca/Culture/2017/07/11/BigHeart-Bannock-Resilience-Resistance-Food/

Kuhnlein, H., & Turner, N. (1991). Traditional Plant Foods of Canadian Indigenous Peoples: Nutrition, Botany and Use. Amsterdam, NL: Gordon and Breach.

Long, L. (2015). Ethnic American Food Today: A Cultural Encyclopedia, Volume 1. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Morin, P. (2009). Banockology, A Community Collaboration of Stories, Art, Essays, Recipes and Poems about Bannock. Victoria, BC: Open Space Arts Societ y.

Turner, N. (1997). Food Plants of the Interior First Peoples. Victoria, BC: Royal BC Museum.

Palmer, A. (2005). Maps of Experience: The Anchoring of Land to Story in Secwepemc Discourse. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Christy Shaw

Greetings everyone. This is Christy Shaw, residing in Revelstoke, British Columbia, Canada. I have been enrolled in the Ethnobotany Certificate Program since the summer of 2016. I have long had an interest in plants as medicine, but I always felt disconnected from their origins and traditional uses, even through my training as a Chartered Herbalist. I wanted to further my knowledge of plants and the relationships people have with plants, and this looked like the perfect course to do so. I am not sure where this certificate will take me, but it will be a great basis for further studies. I own and operate a health food store in my community, and spend my free time traipsing through the woods, always taking the time to stop and smell the roses and taste the snowflakes.


Bannock.

The Métis call bannock la galette. Photo circa 1900, Saskatchewan.

Carbohydrate-rich and simple to make, bannock soon became a staple for Indigenous people across Canada. It goes without saying, however, that part of this was also due to colonization and the removal of Indigenous peoples from their land and traditional food sources (Colombo, 2006). Rations of flour, lard, sugar and eggs became the norm and bannock became a deep-rooted part of Indigenous culture. This can be a tricky subject, and I won’t delve into this very much, but what I have found during my research is that cooking, sharing, and eating bannock can be an empowering experience for all.

“Bannock can go far and can feed many, but it has to be done with love,’ she said, standing in the newly renovated cafe. “Bannock was what we had to eat, but now I want to pay homage to the dignity of our women who have learned to turn a negative into a positive’ (Gilpin, 2017).

The Ethnobotany of Bannock:

Folklorist and food writer Lucy Long writes that “prior to the loss of traditional foods, most indigenous people had some version of a breadlike staple, often called bannock, made of ground bread root, acorn, bean, or corn flour mixed with water and fried in animal fat or cooked on hot, flat stones’ (2015, pg. 446).

Ethnobotanist Nancy Turner reiterates this in an article about bannock, by suggesting “unleavened breads made from the starch/flour of bracken rhizomes were probably “cooked/baked on rocks over the fire, in sand, or in cooking pits or earth ovens’ (Bell, 2018). Another example of a pre-colonial version of bannock was camas bulbs that were baked, dried and chopped or flattened, then shaped into cakes or loaves (Colombo, 2016).

Some Interior First Nations cooked black tree lichen, Bryoria fremontii Tuck., and dried them into cakes, and, similar to bannock, they were eaten on long journeys as a sustainer (Turner, 1997, pg. 35).

A modern version of black lichen bread. Retrieved from: https://www.amazing-food.com/lichen-bread/

Post-colonial bannock, the white flour variety, is widely intertwined with ethnobotany.

The Nlaka’pamux of British Columbia added bitterroot, Lewisia rediviva, to their bannock. It was considered a delicacy, almost a desert, often alongside Saskatoon berries, Amelanchier alnifoli (Bandringa, 1999, pg. 22).

Black mountain huckleberries, or mountain bilberries, Vaccinium membranaceum, were added to bannock by the Chipewyan people of northern Saskatchewan (Kuhnlein & Turner, 1991, pg. 118).

The Woods Cree, also of Saskatchewan, made birch sap into a syrup, thickening it with flour, and ate in on bannock (Kuhnlein & Turner, 1991, pg. 90).

Some Indigenous groups wrapped the dough around a green, hardwood stick and toasted it over an open fire (Bannock Awareness, 2001, pg. 16).

Bannock on a stick. Retrieved from: https://www.canadiangeographic.ca/article/bannock-recipe

Cultural Value of Bannock:

In researching the history of bannock in Canada, I stumbled across a book called Bannockology. A Community Collaboration of Stories, Art, Essays, Recipes and Poems about Bannock. I contacted the publisher to obtain a copy, and they generously gifted me one. It was compiled by Peter Morin, the organizer of the “People’s Bannock.’ This event’s intention was to bring awareness to mineral extraction in Northern B.C. by attempting to make the world’s largest bannock (at 50 feet long!) – “Bannockology is an anthology of anecdotes, recipes, poetry and insights about bannock, the ubiquitous bread that is a part of every First Nations social event, private or public.’

With over 30 entries about bannock, Bannockology helps define how important this staple is to Indigenous peoples across Canada:

Bannock is sort of like our “Jesus-bread’, it is the “flesh’ of our culture.

Bannock has two distinct functions amongst us Indian peoples: first function — It fills our bellies, second function — it fills our souls’

Nanette Jackson (Morin, 2009, pg. 25).

I found many other quotes in various publications that reflect how culturally important bannock is to virtually every Indigenous group in Canada:

“Yet, many Elders tell me that they get sick on ‘Whiteman’s foods,’ and that they are much happier eating wind-dried salmon and bannock every day. It is also the case that salmon, bannock, berries, and other ‘Indian foods’ are locally prepared by people whom one knows, and under known circumstances. Such food, ‘prepared with love,’ provides far more than physical nourishment’ (Palmer, 2005, pg. 76).

For the Inuit, this staple was a “legacy of the nineteenth century contact with whalers’ (Billson & Mancini, 2007, pg. 42). Made with seal oil so it would not freeze, bannock became a traditional food of the Inuit. When researching their book “Inuit Women, Their Powerful Spirit in a Century of Change, authors Billson and Mancini did some more informal “natural gathering’ interviews with Inuit women over tea and bannock (xiv). This simple offering (of bannock) shows the importance of bannock in the Inuit culture.

Annie Pootoogook, Coleman Stove with Robin Hood Flour and Tenderflake. 2004. The modern makings of bannock.

When I was in the Canadian Arctic last summer, I had the pleasure on numerous occasions to eat bannock made by an Inuk I was working with. There was even a recipe for bannock on the camp fridge which was at 81.4 degrees north! Inuit bannock, or palauga, is rich part of the Inuit heritage.

Recipe for bannock on the fridge at camp. Quttinirpaaq National Park. Ellesmere Island. 81.4 degrees north!

Bannock with muskox chili that I made in the Arctic last summer.

Bannock plays a vital role in the lives of Indigenous peoples as a traditional food throughout Canada.

“Bannock is viewed as an important food for Aboriginal residents of Winnipeg’s North End neighbourhood, despite its historical associations with European settlers. Bannock is associated with family histories, cultural events and ceremonies, and food security. Bannock is seen as having a deep connection to identity’ (Cyr & Slater, 2016, pg., 59).

“Bread – white, store bought bread is not the way of our people, it’s not! Bannock is the way. It’s a staple food, it gives you strength it gives you energy. It just makes you strong. It’s so important to eat bannock, to have bannock’ (Cyr & Slater, 2016, pg., 63).

Making Bannock:

With literally hundreds and hundreds of recipes to choose from, I decided on a recipe I found in a publication called “Bannock Awareness.’ This publication was produced by The Ministry of Forests and Range in 2001 to commemorate Aboriginal Awareness Day, which is celebrated annually on the 21st day of June. “Bannock Awareness’ is a collection of favourite bannock related recipes and of little known facts about First Nations history and culture in British Columbia, the province where I live.

Basic Bannock Recipe – Fried or Stick-cooked

1 cup flour

1 tsp baking powder

1/4 tsp salt

3 tbsp margarine/butter

2 tbsp skim milk powder (optional)

Sift together the dry ingredients. Cut in the margarine until the mixture resembles a coarse meal (at this point it can be sealed it in a ziplock bag for field use). Grease and heat a frying pan. Working quickly, add enough COLD water to the pre-packaged dry mix to make a firm dough. Once the water is thoroughly mixed into the dough, form the dough into cakes about 1/2 inch thick. Dust the cakes lightly with flour to make them easier to handle. Lay the bannock cakes in the warm frying pan. Hold them over the heat, rotating the pan a little. Once a bottom crust has formed and the dough has hardened enough to hold together, you can turn the bannock cakes. Cooking takes 12-15 minutes. If you are in the field and you don’t have a frying pan, make a thicker dough by adding less water and roll the dough into a long ribbon (no wider than 1 inch). Wind this around a preheated green, hardwood stick and cook about 8 inches over a fire, turning occasionally, until the bannock is cooked.

Delicious bannock with Nancy Turner jam!

Conclusion:

Bannock is delicious!

And despite its ties to colonialism in Canada, bannock embodies Indigenous culture and identity, both past and present. Whether made of white flour or ground camas bulbs, on a stick or in a pan, with berries, birch syrup or butter, bannock is an important traditional Indigenous food. With deep ethnobotanical roots, bannock has been integrated into the lives of the many Indigenous groups in Canada, creating comfort and community during many uncertain times.

“Fill your heart with happiness and love before starting to bake or cook this will be your secret ingredient that will make this recipe taste so good! Think of the smiling faces of your family and friends as they enjoy this wonderful bannock that you have taken the time to prepare with your own loving hands”

Kate Brant (Morin, 2009, pg. 62).

References:

Ballantyne, E. (2014). Dechinta Bush University. Mobilizing a knowledge economy of reciprocity, resurgence, and decolonization. Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 67-85. Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society.

Bandringa, R. (1999). The Ethnobotany and Descriptive Ecology of Bitterroot, Lewisia rediviva Pursh (Portulacaceae), in the Lower Thompson River Valley, British Columbia: A Salient Root Food of the Nlaka’pamux First Nation (Master’s thesis). The University of Victoria. Retrieved January 18, 2108, from https://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/ubctheses/831/items/1.0099512

Bell, A. (2018, August 4). Bannock and Canada’s First Peoples. Retrieved January 18, 2018, from https://fooddaycanada.ca/featured-article/bannock-canadas-first-peoples/

Billson, J., & Mancini, K. (2007). Inuit Women Their Powerful Spirit in a Century of Change. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Blackstock, M. (2001). Bannock Awareness. Retrieved January 4, 2018, from https://www.for.gov.bc.ca/rsi/fnb/bannockawareness.pdf

Colombo, J. (2006, February 6). Bannock. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 18, 2018, from https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/bannock/

Cyr, M., & Slater, J. (2016). Got Bannock? Traditional Indigenous Bread in Winnipeg’s North End. Chapter 4. Retrieved January 17, 2018, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311202983_Got_Bannock_Traditional_Indigenous_Bread_in_Winnipeg%27s_North_End

Gilpin, E. (2017, July 11). At ‘BigHeart Bannock,’ Resilience and Resistance in Food Made Well. The Tyee. Retrieved January 4, 2018, from https://thetyee.ca/Culture/2017/07/11/BigHeart-Bannock-Resilience-Resistance-Food/

Kuhnlein, H., & Turner, N. (1991). Traditional Plant Foods of Canadian Indigenous Peoples: Nutrition, Botany and Use. Amsterdam, NL: Gordon and Breach.

Long, L. (2015). Ethnic American Food Today: A Cultural Encyclopedia, Volume 1. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Morin, P. (2009). Banockology, A Community Collaboration of Stories, Art, Essays, Recipes and Poems about Bannock. Victoria, BC: Open Space Arts Societ y.

Turner, N. (1997). Food Plants of the Interior First Peoples. Victoria, BC: Royal BC Museum.

Palmer, A. (2005). Maps of Experience: The Anchoring of Land to Story in Secwepemc Discourse. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Christy Shaw

Greetings everyone. This is Christy Shaw, residing in Revelstoke, British Columbia, Canada. I have been enrolled in the Ethnobotany Certificate Program since the summer of 2016. I have long had an interest in plants as medicine, but I always felt disconnected from their origins and traditional uses, even through my training as a Chartered Herbalist. I wanted to further my knowledge of plants and the relationships people have with plants, and this looked like the perfect course to do so. I am not sure where this certificate will take me, but it will be a great basis for further studies. I own and operate a health food store in my community, and spend my free time traipsing through the woods, always taking the time to stop and smell the roses and taste the snowflakes.


Bannock.

The Métis call bannock la galette. Photo circa 1900, Saskatchewan.

Carbohydrate-rich and simple to make, bannock soon became a staple for Indigenous people across Canada. It goes without saying, however, that part of this was also due to colonization and the removal of Indigenous peoples from their land and traditional food sources (Colombo, 2006). Rations of flour, lard, sugar and eggs became the norm and bannock became a deep-rooted part of Indigenous culture. This can be a tricky subject, and I won’t delve into this very much, but what I have found during my research is that cooking, sharing, and eating bannock can be an empowering experience for all.

“Bannock can go far and can feed many, but it has to be done with love,’ she said, standing in the newly renovated cafe. “Bannock was what we had to eat, but now I want to pay homage to the dignity of our women who have learned to turn a negative into a positive’ (Gilpin, 2017).

The Ethnobotany of Bannock:

Folklorist and food writer Lucy Long writes that “prior to the loss of traditional foods, most indigenous people had some version of a breadlike staple, often called bannock, made of ground bread root, acorn, bean, or corn flour mixed with water and fried in animal fat or cooked on hot, flat stones’ (2015, pg. 446).

Ethnobotanist Nancy Turner reiterates this in an article about bannock, by suggesting “unleavened breads made from the starch/flour of bracken rhizomes were probably “cooked/baked on rocks over the fire, in sand, or in cooking pits or earth ovens’ (Bell, 2018). Another example of a pre-colonial version of bannock was camas bulbs that were baked, dried and chopped or flattened, then shaped into cakes or loaves (Colombo, 2016).

Some Interior First Nations cooked black tree lichen, Bryoria fremontii Tuck., and dried them into cakes, and, similar to bannock, they were eaten on long journeys as a sustainer (Turner, 1997, pg. 35).

A modern version of black lichen bread. Retrieved from: https://www.amazing-food.com/lichen-bread/

Post-colonial bannock, the white flour variety, is widely intertwined with ethnobotany.

The Nlaka’pamux of British Columbia added bitterroot, Lewisia rediviva, to their bannock. It was considered a delicacy, almost a desert, often alongside Saskatoon berries, Amelanchier alnifoli (Bandringa, 1999, pg. 22).

Black mountain huckleberries, or mountain bilberries, Vaccinium membranaceum, were added to bannock by the Chipewyan people of northern Saskatchewan (Kuhnlein & Turner, 1991, pg. 118).

The Woods Cree, also of Saskatchewan, made birch sap into a syrup, thickening it with flour, and ate in on bannock (Kuhnlein & Turner, 1991, pg. 90).

Some Indigenous groups wrapped the dough around a green, hardwood stick and toasted it over an open fire (Bannock Awareness, 2001, pg. 16).

Bannock on a stick. Retrieved from: https://www.canadiangeographic.ca/article/bannock-recipe

Cultural Value of Bannock:

In researching the history of bannock in Canada, I stumbled across a book called Bannockology. A Community Collaboration of Stories, Art, Essays, Recipes and Poems about Bannock. I contacted the publisher to obtain a copy, and they generously gifted me one. It was compiled by Peter Morin, the organizer of the “People’s Bannock.’ This event’s intention was to bring awareness to mineral extraction in Northern B.C. by attempting to make the world’s largest bannock (at 50 feet long!) – “Bannockology is an anthology of anecdotes, recipes, poetry and insights about bannock, the ubiquitous bread that is a part of every First Nations social event, private or public.’

With over 30 entries about bannock, Bannockology helps define how important this staple is to Indigenous peoples across Canada:

Bannock is sort of like our “Jesus-bread’, it is the “flesh’ of our culture.

Bannock has two distinct functions amongst us Indian peoples: first function — It fills our bellies, second function — it fills our souls’

Nanette Jackson (Morin, 2009, pg. 25).

I found many other quotes in various publications that reflect how culturally important bannock is to virtually every Indigenous group in Canada:

“Yet, many Elders tell me that they get sick on ‘Whiteman’s foods,’ and that they are much happier eating wind-dried salmon and bannock every day. It is also the case that salmon, bannock, berries, and other ‘Indian foods’ are locally prepared by people whom one knows, and under known circumstances. Such food, ‘prepared with love,’ provides far more than physical nourishment’ (Palmer, 2005, pg. 76).

For the Inuit, this staple was a “legacy of the nineteenth century contact with whalers’ (Billson & Mancini, 2007, pg. 42). Made with seal oil so it would not freeze, bannock became a traditional food of the Inuit. When researching their book “Inuit Women, Their Powerful Spirit in a Century of Change, authors Billson and Mancini did some more informal “natural gathering’ interviews with Inuit women over tea and bannock (xiv). This simple offering (of bannock) shows the importance of bannock in the Inuit culture.

Annie Pootoogook, Coleman Stove with Robin Hood Flour and Tenderflake. 2004. The modern makings of bannock.

When I was in the Canadian Arctic last summer, I had the pleasure on numerous occasions to eat bannock made by an Inuk I was working with. There was even a recipe for bannock on the camp fridge which was at 81.4 degrees north! Inuit bannock, or palauga, is rich part of the Inuit heritage.

Recipe for bannock on the fridge at camp. Quttinirpaaq National Park. Ellesmere Island. 81.4 degrees north!

Bannock with muskox chili that I made in the Arctic last summer.

Bannock plays a vital role in the lives of Indigenous peoples as a traditional food throughout Canada.

“Bannock is viewed as an important food for Aboriginal residents of Winnipeg’s North End neighbourhood, despite its historical associations with European settlers. Bannock is associated with family histories, cultural events and ceremonies, and food security. Bannock is seen as having a deep connection to identity’ (Cyr & Slater, 2016, pg., 59).

“Bread – white, store bought bread is not the way of our people, it’s not! Bannock is the way. It’s a staple food, it gives you strength it gives you energy. It just makes you strong. It’s so important to eat bannock, to have bannock’ (Cyr & Slater, 2016, pg., 63).

Making Bannock:

With literally hundreds and hundreds of recipes to choose from, I decided on a recipe I found in a publication called “Bannock Awareness.’ This publication was produced by The Ministry of Forests and Range in 2001 to commemorate Aboriginal Awareness Day, which is celebrated annually on the 21st day of June. “Bannock Awareness’ is a collection of favourite bannock related recipes and of little known facts about First Nations history and culture in British Columbia, the province where I live.

Basic Bannock Recipe – Fried or Stick-cooked

1 cup flour

1 tsp baking powder

1/4 tsp salt

3 tbsp margarine/butter

2 tbsp skim milk powder (optional)

Sift together the dry ingredients. Cut in the margarine until the mixture resembles a coarse meal (at this point it can be sealed it in a ziplock bag for field use). Grease and heat a frying pan. Working quickly, add enough COLD water to the pre-packaged dry mix to make a firm dough. Once the water is thoroughly mixed into the dough, form the dough into cakes about 1/2 inch thick. Dust the cakes lightly with flour to make them easier to handle. Lay the bannock cakes in the warm frying pan. Hold them over the heat, rotating the pan a little. Once a bottom crust has formed and the dough has hardened enough to hold together, you can turn the bannock cakes. Cooking takes 12-15 minutes. If you are in the field and you don’t have a frying pan, make a thicker dough by adding less water and roll the dough into a long ribbon (no wider than 1 inch). Wind this around a preheated green, hardwood stick and cook about 8 inches over a fire, turning occasionally, until the bannock is cooked.

Delicious bannock with Nancy Turner jam!

Conclusion:

Bannock is delicious!

And despite its ties to colonialism in Canada, bannock embodies Indigenous culture and identity, both past and present. Whether made of white flour or ground camas bulbs, on a stick or in a pan, with berries, birch syrup or butter, bannock is an important traditional Indigenous food. With deep ethnobotanical roots, bannock has been integrated into the lives of the many Indigenous groups in Canada, creating comfort and community during many uncertain times.

“Fill your heart with happiness and love before starting to bake or cook this will be your secret ingredient that will make this recipe taste so good! Think of the smiling faces of your family and friends as they enjoy this wonderful bannock that you have taken the time to prepare with your own loving hands”

Kate Brant (Morin, 2009, pg. 62).

References:

Ballantyne, E. (2014). Dechinta Bush University. Mobilizing a knowledge economy of reciprocity, resurgence, and decolonization. Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 67-85. Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society.

Bandringa, R. (1999). The Ethnobotany and Descriptive Ecology of Bitterroot, Lewisia rediviva Pursh (Portulacaceae), in the Lower Thompson River Valley, British Columbia: A Salient Root Food of the Nlaka’pamux First Nation (Master’s thesis). The University of Victoria. Retrieved January 18, 2108, from https://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/ubctheses/831/items/1.0099512

Bell, A. (2018, August 4). Bannock and Canada’s First Peoples. Retrieved January 18, 2018, from https://fooddaycanada.ca/featured-article/bannock-canadas-first-peoples/

Billson, J., & Mancini, K. (2007). Inuit Women Their Powerful Spirit in a Century of Change. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Blackstock, M. (2001). Bannock Awareness. Retrieved January 4, 2018, from https://www.for.gov.bc.ca/rsi/fnb/bannockawareness.pdf

Colombo, J. (2006, February 6). Bannock. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 18, 2018, from https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/bannock/

Cyr, M., & Slater, J. (2016). Got Bannock? Traditional Indigenous Bread in Winnipeg’s North End. Chapter 4. Retrieved January 17, 2018, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311202983_Got_Bannock_Traditional_Indigenous_Bread_in_Winnipeg%27s_North_End

Gilpin, E. (2017, July 11). At ‘BigHeart Bannock,’ Resilience and Resistance in Food Made Well. The Tyee. Retrieved January 4, 2018, from https://thetyee.ca/Culture/2017/07/11/BigHeart-Bannock-Resilience-Resistance-Food/

Kuhnlein, H., & Turner, N. (1991). Traditional Plant Foods of Canadian Indigenous Peoples: Nutrition, Botany and Use. Amsterdam, NL: Gordon and Breach.

Long, L. (2015). Ethnic American Food Today: A Cultural Encyclopedia, Volume 1. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Morin, P. (2009). Banockology, A Community Collaboration of Stories, Art, Essays, Recipes and Poems about Bannock. Victoria, BC: Open Space Arts Societ y.

Turner, N. (1997). Food Plants of the Interior First Peoples. Victoria, BC: Royal BC Museum.

Palmer, A. (2005). Maps of Experience: The Anchoring of Land to Story in Secwepemc Discourse. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Christy Shaw

Greetings everyone. This is Christy Shaw, residing in Revelstoke, British Columbia, Canada. I have been enrolled in the Ethnobotany Certificate Program since the summer of 2016. I have long had an interest in plants as medicine, but I always felt disconnected from their origins and traditional uses, even through my training as a Chartered Herbalist. I wanted to further my knowledge of plants and the relationships people have with plants, and this looked like the perfect course to do so. I am not sure where this certificate will take me, but it will be a great basis for further studies. I own and operate a health food store in my community, and spend my free time traipsing through the woods, always taking the time to stop and smell the roses and taste the snowflakes.


Bannock.

The Métis call bannock la galette. Photo circa 1900, Saskatchewan.

Carbohydrate-rich and simple to make, bannock soon became a staple for Indigenous people across Canada. It goes without saying, however, that part of this was also due to colonization and the removal of Indigenous peoples from their land and traditional food sources (Colombo, 2006). Rations of flour, lard, sugar and eggs became the norm and bannock became a deep-rooted part of Indigenous culture. This can be a tricky subject, and I won’t delve into this very much, but what I have found during my research is that cooking, sharing, and eating bannock can be an empowering experience for all.

“Bannock can go far and can feed many, but it has to be done with love,’ she said, standing in the newly renovated cafe. “Bannock was what we had to eat, but now I want to pay homage to the dignity of our women who have learned to turn a negative into a positive’ (Gilpin, 2017).

The Ethnobotany of Bannock:

Folklorist and food writer Lucy Long writes that “prior to the loss of traditional foods, most indigenous people had some version of a breadlike staple, often called bannock, made of ground bread root, acorn, bean, or corn flour mixed with water and fried in animal fat or cooked on hot, flat stones’ (2015, pg. 446).

Ethnobotanist Nancy Turner reiterates this in an article about bannock, by suggesting “unleavened breads made from the starch/flour of bracken rhizomes were probably “cooked/baked on rocks over the fire, in sand, or in cooking pits or earth ovens’ (Bell, 2018). Another example of a pre-colonial version of bannock was camas bulbs that were baked, dried and chopped or flattened, then shaped into cakes or loaves (Colombo, 2016).

Some Interior First Nations cooked black tree lichen, Bryoria fremontii Tuck., and dried them into cakes, and, similar to bannock, they were eaten on long journeys as a sustainer (Turner, 1997, pg. 35).

A modern version of black lichen bread. Retrieved from: https://www.amazing-food.com/lichen-bread/

Post-colonial bannock, the white flour variety, is widely intertwined with ethnobotany.

The Nlaka’pamux of British Columbia added bitterroot, Lewisia rediviva, to their bannock. It was considered a delicacy, almost a desert, often alongside Saskatoon berries, Amelanchier alnifoli (Bandringa, 1999, pg. 22).

Black mountain huckleberries, or mountain bilberries, Vaccinium membranaceum, were added to bannock by the Chipewyan people of northern Saskatchewan (Kuhnlein & Turner, 1991, pg. 118).

The Woods Cree, also of Saskatchewan, made birch sap into a syrup, thickening it with flour, and ate in on bannock (Kuhnlein & Turner, 1991, pg. 90).

Some Indigenous groups wrapped the dough around a green, hardwood stick and toasted it over an open fire (Bannock Awareness, 2001, pg. 16).

Bannock on a stick. Retrieved from: https://www.canadiangeographic.ca/article/bannock-recipe

Cultural Value of Bannock:

In researching the history of bannock in Canada, I stumbled across a book called Bannockology. A Community Collaboration of Stories, Art, Essays, Recipes and Poems about Bannock. I contacted the publisher to obtain a copy, and they generously gifted me one. It was compiled by Peter Morin, the organizer of the “People’s Bannock.’ This event’s intention was to bring awareness to mineral extraction in Northern B.C. by attempting to make the world’s largest bannock (at 50 feet long!) – “Bannockology is an anthology of anecdotes, recipes, poetry and insights about bannock, the ubiquitous bread that is a part of every First Nations social event, private or public.’

With over 30 entries about bannock, Bannockology helps define how important this staple is to Indigenous peoples across Canada:

Bannock is sort of like our “Jesus-bread’, it is the “flesh’ of our culture.

Bannock has two distinct functions amongst us Indian peoples: first function — It fills our bellies, second function — it fills our souls’

Nanette Jackson (Morin, 2009, pg. 25).

I found many other quotes in various publications that reflect how culturally important bannock is to virtually every Indigenous group in Canada:

“Yet, many Elders tell me that they get sick on ‘Whiteman’s foods,’ and that they are much happier eating wind-dried salmon and bannock every day. It is also the case that salmon, bannock, berries, and other ‘Indian foods’ are locally prepared by people whom one knows, and under known circumstances. Such food, ‘prepared with love,’ provides far more than physical nourishment’ (Palmer, 2005, pg. 76).

For the Inuit, this staple was a “legacy of the nineteenth century contact with whalers’ (Billson & Mancini, 2007, pg. 42). Made with seal oil so it would not freeze, bannock became a traditional food of the Inuit. When researching their book “Inuit Women, Their Powerful Spirit in a Century of Change, authors Billson and Mancini did some more informal “natural gathering’ interviews with Inuit women over tea and bannock (xiv). This simple offering (of bannock) shows the importance of bannock in the Inuit culture.

Annie Pootoogook, Coleman Stove with Robin Hood Flour and Tenderflake. 2004. The modern makings of bannock.

When I was in the Canadian Arctic last summer, I had the pleasure on numerous occasions to eat bannock made by an Inuk I was working with. There was even a recipe for bannock on the camp fridge which was at 81.4 degrees north! Inuit bannock, or palauga, is rich part of the Inuit heritage.

Recipe for bannock on the fridge at camp. Quttinirpaaq National Park. Ellesmere Island. 81.4 degrees north!

Bannock with muskox chili that I made in the Arctic last summer.

Bannock plays a vital role in the lives of Indigenous peoples as a traditional food throughout Canada.

“Bannock is viewed as an important food for Aboriginal residents of Winnipeg’s North End neighbourhood, despite its historical associations with European settlers. Bannock is associated with family histories, cultural events and ceremonies, and food security. Bannock is seen as having a deep connection to identity’ (Cyr & Slater, 2016, pg., 59).

“Bread – white, store bought bread is not the way of our people, it’s not! Bannock is the way. It’s a staple food, it gives you strength it gives you energy. It just makes you strong. It’s so important to eat bannock, to have bannock’ (Cyr & Slater, 2016, pg., 63).

Making Bannock:

With literally hundreds and hundreds of recipes to choose from, I decided on a recipe I found in a publication called “Bannock Awareness.’ This publication was produced by The Ministry of Forests and Range in 2001 to commemorate Aboriginal Awareness Day, which is celebrated annually on the 21st day of June. “Bannock Awareness’ is a collection of favourite bannock related recipes and of little known facts about First Nations history and culture in British Columbia, the province where I live.

Basic Bannock Recipe – Fried or Stick-cooked

1 cup flour

1 tsp baking powder

1/4 tsp salt

3 tbsp margarine/butter

2 tbsp skim milk powder (optional)

Sift together the dry ingredients. Cut in the margarine until the mixture resembles a coarse meal (at this point it can be sealed it in a ziplock bag for field use). Grease and heat a frying pan. Working quickly, add enough COLD water to the pre-packaged dry mix to make a firm dough. Once the water is thoroughly mixed into the dough, form the dough into cakes about 1/2 inch thick. Dust the cakes lightly with flour to make them easier to handle. Lay the bannock cakes in the warm frying pan. Hold them over the heat, rotating the pan a little. Once a bottom crust has formed and the dough has hardened enough to hold together, you can turn the bannock cakes. Cooking takes 12-15 minutes. If you are in the field and you don’t have a frying pan, make a thicker dough by adding less water and roll the dough into a long ribbon (no wider than 1 inch). Wind this around a preheated green, hardwood stick and cook about 8 inches over a fire, turning occasionally, until the bannock is cooked.

Delicious bannock with Nancy Turner jam!

Conclusion:

Bannock is delicious!

And despite its ties to colonialism in Canada, bannock embodies Indigenous culture and identity, both past and present. Whether made of white flour or ground camas bulbs, on a stick or in a pan, with berries, birch syrup or butter, bannock is an important traditional Indigenous food. With deep ethnobotanical roots, bannock has been integrated into the lives of the many Indigenous groups in Canada, creating comfort and community during many uncertain times.

“Fill your heart with happiness and love before starting to bake or cook this will be your secret ingredient that will make this recipe taste so good! Think of the smiling faces of your family and friends as they enjoy this wonderful bannock that you have taken the time to prepare with your own loving hands”

Kate Brant (Morin, 2009, pg. 62).

References:

Ballantyne, E. (2014). Dechinta Bush University. Mobilizing a knowledge economy of reciprocity, resurgence, and decolonization. Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 67-85. Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society.

Bandringa, R. (1999). The Ethnobotany and Descriptive Ecology of Bitterroot, Lewisia rediviva Pursh (Portulacaceae), in the Lower Thompson River Valley, British Columbia: A Salient Root Food of the Nlaka’pamux First Nation (Master’s thesis). The University of Victoria. Retrieved January 18, 2108, from https://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/ubctheses/831/items/1.0099512

Bell, A. (2018, August 4). Bannock and Canada’s First Peoples. Retrieved January 18, 2018, from https://fooddaycanada.ca/featured-article/bannock-canadas-first-peoples/

Billson, J., & Mancini, K. (2007). Inuit Women Their Powerful Spirit in a Century of Change. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Blackstock, M. (2001). Bannock Awareness. Retrieved January 4, 2018, from https://www.for.gov.bc.ca/rsi/fnb/bannockawareness.pdf

Colombo, J. (2006, February 6). Bannock. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 18, 2018, from https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/bannock/

Cyr, M., & Slater, J. (2016). Got Bannock? Traditional Indigenous Bread in Winnipeg’s North End. Chapter 4. Retrieved January 17, 2018, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311202983_Got_Bannock_Traditional_Indigenous_Bread_in_Winnipeg%27s_North_End

Gilpin, E. (2017, July 11). At ‘BigHeart Bannock,’ Resilience and Resistance in Food Made Well. The Tyee. Retrieved January 4, 2018, from https://thetyee.ca/Culture/2017/07/11/BigHeart-Bannock-Resilience-Resistance-Food/

Kuhnlein, H., & Turner, N. (1991). Traditional Plant Foods of Canadian Indigenous Peoples: Nutrition, Botany and Use. Amsterdam, NL: Gordon and Breach.

Long, L. (2015). Ethnic American Food Today: A Cultural Encyclopedia, Volume 1. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Morin, P. (2009). Banockology, A Community Collaboration of Stories, Art, Essays, Recipes and Poems about Bannock. Victoria, BC: Open Space Arts Societ y.

Turner, N. (1997). Food Plants of the Interior First Peoples. Victoria, BC: Royal BC Museum.

Palmer, A. (2005). Maps of Experience: The Anchoring of Land to Story in Secwepemc Discourse. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Christy Shaw

Greetings everyone. This is Christy Shaw, residing in Revelstoke, British Columbia, Canada. I have been enrolled in the Ethnobotany Certificate Program since the summer of 2016. I have long had an interest in plants as medicine, but I always felt disconnected from their origins and traditional uses, even through my training as a Chartered Herbalist. I wanted to further my knowledge of plants and the relationships people have with plants, and this looked like the perfect course to do so. I am not sure where this certificate will take me, but it will be a great basis for further studies. I own and operate a health food store in my community, and spend my free time traipsing through the woods, always taking the time to stop and smell the roses and taste the snowflakes.


Bannock.

The Métis call bannock la galette. Photo circa 1900, Saskatchewan.

Carbohydrate-rich and simple to make, bannock soon became a staple for Indigenous people across Canada. It goes without saying, however, that part of this was also due to colonization and the removal of Indigenous peoples from their land and traditional food sources (Colombo, 2006). Rations of flour, lard, sugar and eggs became the norm and bannock became a deep-rooted part of Indigenous culture. This can be a tricky subject, and I won’t delve into this very much, but what I have found during my research is that cooking, sharing, and eating bannock can be an empowering experience for all.

“Bannock can go far and can feed many, but it has to be done with love,’ she said, standing in the newly renovated cafe. “Bannock was what we had to eat, but now I want to pay homage to the dignity of our women who have learned to turn a negative into a positive’ (Gilpin, 2017).

The Ethnobotany of Bannock:

Folklorist and food writer Lucy Long writes that “prior to the loss of traditional foods, most indigenous people had some version of a breadlike staple, often called bannock, made of ground bread root, acorn, bean, or corn flour mixed with water and fried in animal fat or cooked on hot, flat stones’ (2015, pg. 446).

Ethnobotanist Nancy Turner reiterates this in an article about bannock, by suggesting “unleavened breads made from the starch/flour of bracken rhizomes were probably “cooked/baked on rocks over the fire, in sand, or in cooking pits or earth ovens’ (Bell, 2018). Another example of a pre-colonial version of bannock was camas bulbs that were baked, dried and chopped or flattened, then shaped into cakes or loaves (Colombo, 2016).

Some Interior First Nations cooked black tree lichen, Bryoria fremontii Tuck., and dried them into cakes, and, similar to bannock, they were eaten on long journeys as a sustainer (Turner, 1997, pg. 35).

A modern version of black lichen bread. Retrieved from: https://www.amazing-food.com/lichen-bread/

Post-colonial bannock, the white flour variety, is widely intertwined with ethnobotany.

The Nlaka’pamux of British Columbia added bitterroot, Lewisia rediviva, to their bannock. It was considered a delicacy, almost a desert, often alongside Saskatoon berries, Amelanchier alnifoli (Bandringa, 1999, pg. 22).

Black mountain huckleberries, or mountain bilberries, Vaccinium membranaceum, were added to bannock by the Chipewyan people of northern Saskatchewan (Kuhnlein & Turner, 1991, pg. 118).

The Woods Cree, also of Saskatchewan, made birch sap into a syrup, thickening it with flour, and ate in on bannock (Kuhnlein & Turner, 1991, pg. 90).

Some Indigenous groups wrapped the dough around a green, hardwood stick and toasted it over an open fire (Bannock Awareness, 2001, pg. 16).

Bannock on a stick. Retrieved from: https://www.canadiangeographic.ca/article/bannock-recipe

Cultural Value of Bannock:

In researching the history of bannock in Canada, I stumbled across a book called Bannockology. A Community Collaboration of Stories, Art, Essays, Recipes and Poems about Bannock. I contacted the publisher to obtain a copy, and they generously gifted me one. It was compiled by Peter Morin, the organizer of the “People’s Bannock.’ This event’s intention was to bring awareness to mineral extraction in Northern B.C. by attempting to make the world’s largest bannock (at 50 feet long!) – “Bannockology is an anthology of anecdotes, recipes, poetry and insights about bannock, the ubiquitous bread that is a part of every First Nations social event, private or public.’

With over 30 entries about bannock, Bannockology helps define how important this staple is to Indigenous peoples across Canada:

Bannock is sort of like our “Jesus-bread’, it is the “flesh’ of our culture.

Bannock has two distinct functions amongst us Indian peoples: first function — It fills our bellies, second function — it fills our souls’

Nanette Jackson (Morin, 2009, pg. 25).

I found many other quotes in various publications that reflect how culturally important bannock is to virtually every Indigenous group in Canada:

“Yet, many Elders tell me that they get sick on ‘Whiteman’s foods,’ and that they are much happier eating wind-dried salmon and bannock every day. It is also the case that salmon, bannock, berries, and other ‘Indian foods’ are locally prepared by people whom one knows, and under known circumstances. Such food, ‘prepared with love,’ provides far more than physical nourishment’ (Palmer, 2005, pg. 76).

For the Inuit, this staple was a “legacy of the nineteenth century contact with whalers’ (Billson & Mancini, 2007, pg. 42). Made with seal oil so it would not freeze, bannock became a traditional food of the Inuit. When researching their book “Inuit Women, Their Powerful Spirit in a Century of Change, authors Billson and Mancini did some more informal “natural gathering’ interviews with Inuit women over tea and bannock (xiv). This simple offering (of bannock) shows the importance of bannock in the Inuit culture.

Annie Pootoogook, Coleman Stove with Robin Hood Flour and Tenderflake. 2004. The modern makings of bannock.

When I was in the Canadian Arctic last summer, I had the pleasure on numerous occasions to eat bannock made by an Inuk I was working with. There was even a recipe for bannock on the camp fridge which was at 81.4 degrees north! Inuit bannock, or palauga, is rich part of the Inuit heritage.

Recipe for bannock on the fridge at camp. Quttinirpaaq National Park. Ellesmere Island. 81.4 degrees north!

Bannock with muskox chili that I made in the Arctic last summer.

Bannock plays a vital role in the lives of Indigenous peoples as a traditional food throughout Canada.

“Bannock is viewed as an important food for Aboriginal residents of Winnipeg’s North End neighbourhood, despite its historical associations with European settlers. Bannock is associated with family histories, cultural events and ceremonies, and food security. Bannock is seen as having a deep connection to identity’ (Cyr & Slater, 2016, pg., 59).

“Bread – white, store bought bread is not the way of our people, it’s not! Bannock is the way. It’s a staple food, it gives you strength it gives you energy. It just makes you strong. It’s so important to eat bannock, to have bannock’ (Cyr & Slater, 2016, pg., 63).

Making Bannock:

With literally hundreds and hundreds of recipes to choose from, I decided on a recipe I found in a publication called “Bannock Awareness.’ This publication was produced by The Ministry of Forests and Range in 2001 to commemorate Aboriginal Awareness Day, which is celebrated annually on the 21st day of June. “Bannock Awareness’ is a collection of favourite bannock related recipes and of little known facts about First Nations history and culture in British Columbia, the province where I live.

Basic Bannock Recipe – Fried or Stick-cooked

1 cup flour

1 tsp baking powder

1/4 tsp salt

3 tbsp margarine/butter

2 tbsp skim milk powder (optional)

Sift together the dry ingredients. Cut in the margarine until the mixture resembles a coarse meal (at this point it can be sealed it in a ziplock bag for field use). Grease and heat a frying pan. Working quickly, add enough COLD water to the pre-packaged dry mix to make a firm dough. Once the water is thoroughly mixed into the dough, form the dough into cakes about 1/2 inch thick. Dust the cakes lightly with flour to make them easier to handle. Lay the bannock cakes in the warm frying pan. Hold them over the heat, rotating the pan a little. Once a bottom crust has formed and the dough has hardened enough to hold together, you can turn the bannock cakes. Cooking takes 12-15 minutes. If you are in the field and you don’t have a frying pan, make a thicker dough by adding less water and roll the dough into a long ribbon (no wider than 1 inch). Wind this around a preheated green, hardwood stick and cook about 8 inches over a fire, turning occasionally, until the bannock is cooked.

Delicious bannock with Nancy Turner jam!

Conclusion:

Bannock is delicious!

And despite its ties to colonialism in Canada, bannock embodies Indigenous culture and identity, both past and present. Whether made of white flour or ground camas bulbs, on a stick or in a pan, with berries, birch syrup or butter, bannock is an important traditional Indigenous food. With deep ethnobotanical roots, bannock has been integrated into the lives of the many Indigenous groups in Canada, creating comfort and community during many uncertain times.

“Fill your heart with happiness and love before starting to bake or cook this will be your secret ingredient that will make this recipe taste so good! Think of the smiling faces of your family and friends as they enjoy this wonderful bannock that you have taken the time to prepare with your own loving hands”

Kate Brant (Morin, 2009, pg. 62).

References:

Ballantyne, E. (2014). Dechinta Bush University. Mobilizing a knowledge economy of reciprocity, resurgence, and decolonization. Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 67-85. Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society.

Bandringa, R. (1999). The Ethnobotany and Descriptive Ecology of Bitterroot, Lewisia rediviva Pursh (Portulacaceae), in the Lower Thompson River Valley, British Columbia: A Salient Root Food of the Nlaka’pamux First Nation (Master’s thesis). The University of Victoria. Retrieved January 18, 2108, from https://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/ubctheses/831/items/1.0099512

Bell, A. (2018, August 4). Bannock and Canada’s First Peoples. Retrieved January 18, 2018, from https://fooddaycanada.ca/featured-article/bannock-canadas-first-peoples/

Billson, J., & Mancini, K. (2007). Inuit Women Their Powerful Spirit in a Century of Change. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Blackstock, M. (2001). Bannock Awareness. Retrieved January 4, 2018, from https://www.for.gov.bc.ca/rsi/fnb/bannockawareness.pdf

Colombo, J. (2006, February 6). Bannock. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 18, 2018, from https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/bannock/

Cyr, M., & Slater, J. (2016). Got Bannock? Traditional Indigenous Bread in Winnipeg’s North End. Chapter 4. Retrieved January 17, 2018, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311202983_Got_Bannock_Traditional_Indigenous_Bread_in_Winnipeg%27s_North_End

Gilpin, E. (2017, July 11). At ‘BigHeart Bannock,’ Resilience and Resistance in Food Made Well. The Tyee. Retrieved January 4, 2018, from https://thetyee.ca/Culture/2017/07/11/BigHeart-Bannock-Resilience-Resistance-Food/

Kuhnlein, H., & Turner, N. (1991). Traditional Plant Foods of Canadian Indigenous Peoples: Nutrition, Botany and Use. Amsterdam, NL: Gordon and Breach.

Long, L. (2015). Ethnic American Food Today: A Cultural Encyclopedia, Volume 1. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Morin, P. (2009). Banockology, A Community Collaboration of Stories, Art, Essays, Recipes and Poems about Bannock. Victoria, BC: Open Space Arts Societ y.

Turner, N. (1997). Food Plants of the Interior First Peoples. Victoria, BC: Royal BC Museum.

Palmer, A. (2005). Maps of Experience: The Anchoring of Land to Story in Secwepemc Discourse. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Christy Shaw

Greetings everyone. This is Christy Shaw, residing in Revelstoke, British Columbia, Canada. I have been enrolled in the Ethnobotany Certificate Program since the summer of 2016. I have long had an interest in plants as medicine, but I always felt disconnected from their origins and traditional uses, even through my training as a Chartered Herbalist. I wanted to further my knowledge of plants and the relationships people have with plants, and this looked like the perfect course to do so. I am not sure where this certificate will take me, but it will be a great basis for further studies. I own and operate a health food store in my community, and spend my free time traipsing through the woods, always taking the time to stop and smell the roses and taste the snowflakes.


Bannock.

The Métis call bannock la galette. Photo circa 1900, Saskatchewan.

Carbohydrate-rich and simple to make, bannock soon became a staple for Indigenous people across Canada. It goes without saying, however, that part of this was also due to colonization and the removal of Indigenous peoples from their land and traditional food sources (Colombo, 2006). Rations of flour, lard, sugar and eggs became the norm and bannock became a deep-rooted part of Indigenous culture. This can be a tricky subject, and I won’t delve into this very much, but what I have found during my research is that cooking, sharing, and eating bannock can be an empowering experience for all.

“Bannock can go far and can feed many, but it has to be done with love,’ she said, standing in the newly renovated cafe. “Bannock was what we had to eat, but now I want to pay homage to the dignity of our women who have learned to turn a negative into a positive’ (Gilpin, 2017).

The Ethnobotany of Bannock:

Folklorist and food writer Lucy Long writes that “prior to the loss of traditional foods, most indigenous people had some version of a breadlike staple, often called bannock, made of ground bread root, acorn, bean, or corn flour mixed with water and fried in animal fat or cooked on hot, flat stones’ (2015, pg. 446).

Ethnobotanist Nancy Turner reiterates this in an article about bannock, by suggesting “unleavened breads made from the starch/flour of bracken rhizomes were probably “cooked/baked on rocks over the fire, in sand, or in cooking pits or earth ovens’ (Bell, 2018). Another example of a pre-colonial version of bannock was camas bulbs that were baked, dried and chopped or flattened, then shaped into cakes or loaves (Colombo, 2016).

Some Interior First Nations cooked black tree lichen, Bryoria fremontii Tuck., and dried them into cakes, and, similar to bannock, they were eaten on long journeys as a sustainer (Turner, 1997, pg. 35).

A modern version of black lichen bread. Retrieved from: https://www.amazing-food.com/lichen-bread/

Post-colonial bannock, the white flour variety, is widely intertwined with ethnobotany.

The Nlaka’pamux of British Columbia added bitterroot, Lewisia rediviva, to their bannock. It was considered a delicacy, almost a desert, often alongside Saskatoon berries, Amelanchier alnifoli (Bandringa, 1999, pg. 22).

Black mountain huckleberries, or mountain bilberries, Vaccinium membranaceum, were added to bannock by the Chipewyan people of northern Saskatchewan (Kuhnlein & Turner, 1991, pg. 118).

The Woods Cree, also of Saskatchewan, made birch sap into a syrup, thickening it with flour, and ate in on bannock (Kuhnlein & Turner, 1991, pg. 90).

Some Indigenous groups wrapped the dough around a green, hardwood stick and toasted it over an open fire (Bannock Awareness, 2001, pg. 16).

Bannock on a stick. Retrieved from: https://www.canadiangeographic.ca/article/bannock-recipe

Cultural Value of Bannock:

In researching the history of bannock in Canada, I stumbled across a book called Bannockology. A Community Collaboration of Stories, Art, Essays, Recipes and Poems about Bannock. I contacted the publisher to obtain a copy, and they generously gifted me one. It was compiled by Peter Morin, the organizer of the “People’s Bannock.’ This event’s intention was to bring awareness to mineral extraction in Northern B.C. by attempting to make the world’s largest bannock (at 50 feet long!) – “Bannockology is an anthology of anecdotes, recipes, poetry and insights about bannock, the ubiquitous bread that is a part of every First Nations social event, private or public.’

With over 30 entries about bannock, Bannockology helps define how important this staple is to Indigenous peoples across Canada:

Bannock is sort of like our “Jesus-bread’, it is the “flesh’ of our culture.

Bannock has two distinct functions amongst us Indian peoples: first function — It fills our bellies, second function — it fills our souls’

Nanette Jackson (Morin, 2009, pg. 25).

I found many other quotes in various publications that reflect how culturally important bannock is to virtually every Indigenous group in Canada:

“Yet, many Elders tell me that they get sick on ‘Whiteman’s foods,’ and that they are much happier eating wind-dried salmon and bannock every day. It is also the case that salmon, bannock, berries, and other ‘Indian foods’ are locally prepared by people whom one knows, and under known circumstances. Such food, ‘prepared with love,’ provides far more than physical nourishment’ (Palmer, 2005, pg. 76).

For the Inuit, this staple was a “legacy of the nineteenth century contact with whalers’ (Billson & Mancini, 2007, pg. 42). Made with seal oil so it would not freeze, bannock became a traditional food of the Inuit. When researching their book “Inuit Women, Their Powerful Spirit in a Century of Change, authors Billson and Mancini did some more informal “natural gathering’ interviews with Inuit women over tea and bannock (xiv). This simple offering (of bannock) shows the importance of bannock in the Inuit culture.

Annie Pootoogook, Coleman Stove with Robin Hood Flour and Tenderflake. 2004. The modern makings of bannock.

When I was in the Canadian Arctic last summer, I had the pleasure on numerous occasions to eat bannock made by an Inuk I was working with. There was even a recipe for bannock on the camp fridge which was at 81.4 degrees north! Inuit bannock, or palauga, is rich part of the Inuit heritage.

Recipe for bannock on the fridge at camp. Quttinirpaaq National Park. Ellesmere Island. 81.4 degrees north!

Bannock with muskox chili that I made in the Arctic last summer.

Bannock plays a vital role in the lives of Indigenous peoples as a traditional food throughout Canada.

“Bannock is viewed as an important food for Aboriginal residents of Winnipeg’s North End neighbourhood, despite its historical associations with European settlers. Bannock is associated with family histories, cultural events and ceremonies, and food security. Bannock is seen as having a deep connection to identity’ (Cyr & Slater, 2016, pg., 59).

“Bread – white, store bought bread is not the way of our people, it’s not! Bannock is the way. It’s a staple food, it gives you strength it gives you energy. It just makes you strong. It’s so important to eat bannock, to have bannock’ (Cyr & Slater, 2016, pg., 63).

Making Bannock:

With literally hundreds and hundreds of recipes to choose from, I decided on a recipe I found in a publication called “Bannock Awareness.’ This publication was produced by The Ministry of Forests and Range in 2001 to commemorate Aboriginal Awareness Day, which is celebrated annually on the 21st day of June. “Bannock Awareness’ is a collection of favourite bannock related recipes and of little known facts about First Nations history and culture in British Columbia, the province where I live.

Basic Bannock Recipe – Fried or Stick-cooked

1 cup flour

1 tsp baking powder

1/4 tsp salt

3 tbsp margarine/butter

2 tbsp skim milk powder (optional)

Sift together the dry ingredients. Cut in the margarine until the mixture resembles a coarse meal (at this point it can be sealed it in a ziplock bag for field use). Grease and heat a frying pan. Working quickly, add enough COLD water to the pre-packaged dry mix to make a firm dough. Once the water is thoroughly mixed into the dough, form the dough into cakes about 1/2 inch thick. Dust the cakes lightly with flour to make them easier to handle. Lay the bannock cakes in the warm frying pan. Hold them over the heat, rotating the pan a little. Once a bottom crust has formed and the dough has hardened enough to hold together, you can turn the bannock cakes. Cooking takes 12-15 minutes. If you are in the field and you don’t have a frying pan, make a thicker dough by adding less water and roll the dough into a long ribbon (no wider than 1 inch). Wind this around a preheated green, hardwood stick and cook about 8 inches over a fire, turning occasionally, until the bannock is cooked.

Delicious bannock with Nancy Turner jam!

Conclusion:

Bannock is delicious!

And despite its ties to colonialism in Canada, bannock embodies Indigenous culture and identity, both past and present. Whether made of white flour or ground camas bulbs, on a stick or in a pan, with berries, birch syrup or butter, bannock is an important traditional Indigenous food. With deep ethnobotanical roots, bannock has been integrated into the lives of the many Indigenous groups in Canada, creating comfort and community during many uncertain times.

“Fill your heart with happiness and love before starting to bake or cook this will be your secret ingredient that will make this recipe taste so good! Think of the smiling faces of your family and friends as they enjoy this wonderful bannock that you have taken the time to prepare with your own loving hands”

Kate Brant (Morin, 2009, pg. 62).

References:

Ballantyne, E. (2014). Dechinta Bush University. Mobilizing a knowledge economy of reciprocity, resurgence, and decolonization. Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 67-85. Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society.

Bandringa, R. (1999). The Ethnobotany and Descriptive Ecology of Bitterroot, Lewisia rediviva Pursh (Portulacaceae), in the Lower Thompson River Valley, British Columbia: A Salient Root Food of the Nlaka’pamux First Nation (Master’s thesis). The University of Victoria. Retrieved January 18, 2108, from https://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/ubctheses/831/items/1.0099512

Bell, A. (2018, August 4). Bannock and Canada’s First Peoples. Retrieved January 18, 2018, from https://fooddaycanada.ca/featured-article/bannock-canadas-first-peoples/

Billson, J., & Mancini, K. (2007). Inuit Women Their Powerful Spirit in a Century of Change. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Blackstock, M. (2001). Bannock Awareness. Retrieved January 4, 2018, from https://www.for.gov.bc.ca/rsi/fnb/bannockawareness.pdf

Colombo, J. (2006, February 6). Bannock. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 18, 2018, from https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/bannock/

Cyr, M., & Slater, J. (2016). Got Bannock? Traditional Indigenous Bread in Winnipeg’s North End. Chapter 4. Retrieved January 17, 2018, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311202983_Got_Bannock_Traditional_Indigenous_Bread_in_Winnipeg%27s_North_End

Gilpin, E. (2017, July 11). At ‘BigHeart Bannock,’ Resilience and Resistance in Food Made Well. The Tyee. Retrieved January 4, 2018, from https://thetyee.ca/Culture/2017/07/11/BigHeart-Bannock-Resilience-Resistance-Food/

Kuhnlein, H., & Turner, N. (1991). Traditional Plant Foods of Canadian Indigenous Peoples: Nutrition, Botany and Use. Amsterdam, NL: Gordon and Breach.

Long, L. (2015). Ethnic American Food Today: A Cultural Encyclopedia, Volume 1. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Morin, P. (2009). Banockology, A Community Collaboration of Stories, Art, Essays, Recipes and Poems about Bannock. Victoria, BC: Open Space Arts Societ y.

Turner, N. (1997). Food Plants of the Interior First Peoples. Victoria, BC: Royal BC Museum.

Palmer, A. (2005). Maps of Experience: The Anchoring of Land to Story in Secwepemc Discourse. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Christy Shaw

Greetings everyone. This is Christy Shaw, residing in Revelstoke, British Columbia, Canada. I have been enrolled in the Ethnobotany Certificate Program since the summer of 2016. I have long had an interest in plants as medicine, but I always felt disconnected from their origins and traditional uses, even through my training as a Chartered Herbalist. I wanted to further my knowledge of plants and the relationships people have with plants, and this looked like the perfect course to do so. I am not sure where this certificate will take me, but it will be a great basis for further studies. I own and operate a health food store in my community, and spend my free time traipsing through the woods, always taking the time to stop and smell the roses and taste the snowflakes.


Bannock.

The Métis call bannock la galette. Photo circa 1900, Saskatchewan.

Carbohydrate-rich and simple to make, bannock soon became a staple for Indigenous people across Canada. It goes without saying, however, that part of this was also due to colonization and the removal of Indigenous peoples from their land and traditional food sources (Colombo, 2006). Rations of flour, lard, sugar and eggs became the norm and bannock became a deep-rooted part of Indigenous culture. This can be a tricky subject, and I won’t delve into this very much, but what I have found during my research is that cooking, sharing, and eating bannock can be an empowering experience for all.

“Bannock can go far and can feed many, but it has to be done with love,’ she said, standing in the newly renovated cafe. “Bannock was what we had to eat, but now I want to pay homage to the dignity of our women who have learned to turn a negative into a positive’ (Gilpin, 2017).

The Ethnobotany of Bannock:

Folklorist and food writer Lucy Long writes that “prior to the loss of traditional foods, most indigenous people had some version of a breadlike staple, often called bannock, made of ground bread root, acorn, bean, or corn flour mixed with water and fried in animal fat or cooked on hot, flat stones’ (2015, pg. 446).

Ethnobotanist Nancy Turner reiterates this in an article about bannock, by suggesting “unleavened breads made from the starch/flour of bracken rhizomes were probably “cooked/baked on rocks over the fire, in sand, or in cooking pits or earth ovens’ (Bell, 2018). Another example of a pre-colonial version of bannock was camas bulbs that were baked, dried and chopped or flattened, then shaped into cakes or loaves (Colombo, 2016).

Some Interior First Nations cooked black tree lichen, Bryoria fremontii Tuck., and dried them into cakes, and, similar to bannock, they were eaten on long journeys as a sustainer (Turner, 1997, pg. 35).

A modern version of black lichen bread. Retrieved from: https://www.amazing-food.com/lichen-bread/

Post-colonial bannock, the white flour variety, is widely intertwined with ethnobotany.

The Nlaka’pamux of British Columbia added bitterroot, Lewisia rediviva, to their bannock. It was considered a delicacy, almost a desert, often alongside Saskatoon berries, Amelanchier alnifoli (Bandringa, 1999, pg. 22).

Black mountain huckleberries, or mountain bilberries, Vaccinium membranaceum, were added to bannock by the Chipewyan people of northern Saskatchewan (Kuhnlein & Turner, 1991, pg. 118).

The Woods Cree, also of Saskatchewan, made birch sap into a syrup, thickening it with flour, and ate in on bannock (Kuhnlein & Turner, 1991, pg. 90).

Some Indigenous groups wrapped the dough around a green, hardwood stick and toasted it over an open fire (Bannock Awareness, 2001, pg. 16).

Bannock on a stick. Retrieved from: https://www.canadiangeographic.ca/article/bannock-recipe

Cultural Value of Bannock:

In researching the history of bannock in Canada, I stumbled across a book called Bannockology. A Community Collaboration of Stories, Art, Essays, Recipes and Poems about Bannock. I contacted the publisher to obtain a copy, and they generously gifted me one. It was compiled by Peter Morin, the organizer of the “People’s Bannock.’ This event’s intention was to bring awareness to mineral extraction in Northern B.C. by attempting to make the world’s largest bannock (at 50 feet long!) – “Bannockology is an anthology of anecdotes, recipes, poetry and insights about bannock, the ubiquitous bread that is a part of every First Nations social event, private or public.’

With over 30 entries about bannock, Bannockology helps define how important this staple is to Indigenous peoples across Canada:

Bannock is sort of like our “Jesus-bread’, it is the “flesh’ of our culture.

Bannock has two distinct functions amongst us Indian peoples: first function — It fills our bellies, second function — it fills our souls’

Nanette Jackson (Morin, 2009, pg. 25).

I found many other quotes in various publications that reflect how culturally important bannock is to virtually every Indigenous group in Canada:

“Yet, many Elders tell me that they get sick on ‘Whiteman’s foods,’ and that they are much happier eating wind-dried salmon and bannock every day. It is also the case that salmon, bannock, berries, and other ‘Indian foods’ are locally prepared by people whom one knows, and under known circumstances. Such food, ‘prepared with love,’ provides far more than physical nourishment’ (Palmer, 2005, pg. 76).

For the Inuit, this staple was a “legacy of the nineteenth century contact with whalers’ (Billson & Mancini, 2007, pg. 42). Made with seal oil so it would not freeze, bannock became a traditional food of the Inuit. When researching their book “Inuit Women, Their Powerful Spirit in a Century of Change, authors Billson and Mancini did some more informal “natural gathering’ interviews with Inuit women over tea and bannock (xiv). This simple offering (of bannock) shows the importance of bannock in the Inuit culture.

Annie Pootoogook, Coleman Stove with Robin Hood Flour and Tenderflake. 2004. The modern makings of bannock.

When I was in the Canadian Arctic last summer, I had the pleasure on numerous occasions to eat bannock made by an Inuk I was working with. There was even a recipe for bannock on the camp fridge which was at 81.4 degrees north! Inuit bannock, or palauga, is rich part of the Inuit heritage.

Recipe for bannock on the fridge at camp. Quttinirpaaq National Park. Ellesmere Island. 81.4 degrees north!

Bannock with muskox chili that I made in the Arctic last summer.

Bannock plays a vital role in the lives of Indigenous peoples as a traditional food throughout Canada.

“Bannock is viewed as an important food for Aboriginal residents of Winnipeg’s North End neighbourhood, despite its historical associations with European settlers. Bannock is associated with family histories, cultural events and ceremonies, and food security. Bannock is seen as having a deep connection to identity’ (Cyr & Slater, 2016, pg., 59).

“Bread – white, store bought bread is not the way of our people, it’s not! Bannock is the way. It’s a staple food, it gives you strength it gives you energy. It just makes you strong. It’s so important to eat bannock, to have bannock’ (Cyr & Slater, 2016, pg., 63).

Making Bannock:

With literally hundreds and hundreds of recipes to choose from, I decided on a recipe I found in a publication called “Bannock Awareness.’ This publication was produced by The Ministry of Forests and Range in 2001 to commemorate Aboriginal Awareness Day, which is celebrated annually on the 21st day of June. “Bannock Awareness’ is a collection of favourite bannock related recipes and of little known facts about First Nations history and culture in British Columbia, the province where I live.

Basic Bannock Recipe – Fried or Stick-cooked

1 cup flour

1 tsp baking powder

1/4 tsp salt

3 tbsp margarine/butter

2 tbsp skim milk powder (optional)

Sift together the dry ingredients. Cut in the margarine until the mixture resembles a coarse meal (at this point it can be sealed it in a ziplock bag for field use). Grease and heat a frying pan. Working quickly, add enough COLD water to the pre-packaged dry mix to make a firm dough. Once the water is thoroughly mixed into the dough, form the dough into cakes about 1/2 inch thick. Dust the cakes lightly with flour to make them easier to handle. Lay the bannock cakes in the warm frying pan. Hold them over the heat, rotating the pan a little. Once a bottom crust has formed and the dough has hardened enough to hold together, you can turn the bannock cakes. Cooking takes 12-15 minutes. If you are in the field and you don’t have a frying pan, make a thicker dough by adding less water and roll the dough into a long ribbon (no wider than 1 inch). Wind this around a preheated green, hardwood stick and cook about 8 inches over a fire, turning occasionally, until the bannock is cooked.

Delicious bannock with Nancy Turner jam!

Conclusion:

Bannock is delicious!

And despite its ties to colonialism in Canada, bannock embodies Indigenous culture and identity, both past and present. Whether made of white flour or ground camas bulbs, on a stick or in a pan, with berries, birch syrup or butter, bannock is an important traditional Indigenous food. With deep ethnobotanical roots, bannock has been integrated into the lives of the many Indigenous groups in Canada, creating comfort and community during many uncertain times.

“Fill your heart with happiness and love before starting to bake or cook this will be your secret ingredient that will make this recipe taste so good! Think of the smiling faces of your family and friends as they enjoy this wonderful bannock that you have taken the time to prepare with your own loving hands”

Kate Brant (Morin, 2009, pg. 62).

References:

Ballantyne, E. (2014). Dechinta Bush University. Mobilizing a knowledge economy of reciprocity, resurgence, and decolonization. Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 67-85. Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society.

Bandringa, R. (1999). The Ethnobotany and Descriptive Ecology of Bitterroot, Lewisia rediviva Pursh (Portulacaceae), in the Lower Thompson River Valley, British Columbia: A Salient Root Food of the Nlaka’pamux First Nation (Master’s thesis). The University of Victoria. Retrieved January 18, 2108, from https://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/ubctheses/831/items/1.0099512

Bell, A. (2018, August 4). Bannock and Canada’s First Peoples. Retrieved January 18, 2018, from https://fooddaycanada.ca/featured-article/bannock-canadas-first-peoples/

Billson, J., & Mancini, K. (2007). Inuit Women Their Powerful Spirit in a Century of Change. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Blackstock, M. (2001). Bannock Awareness. Retrieved January 4, 2018, from https://www.for.gov.bc.ca/rsi/fnb/bannockawareness.pdf

Colombo, J. (2006, February 6). Bannock. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 18, 2018, from https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/bannock/

Cyr, M., & Slater, J. (2016). Got Bannock? Traditional Indigenous Bread in Winnipeg’s North End. Chapter 4. Retrieved January 17, 2018, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311202983_Got_Bannock_Traditional_Indigenous_Bread_in_Winnipeg%27s_North_End

Gilpin, E. (2017, July 11). At ‘BigHeart Bannock,’ Resilience and Resistance in Food Made Well. The Tyee. Retrieved January 4, 2018, from https://thetyee.ca/Culture/2017/07/11/BigHeart-Bannock-Resilience-Resistance-Food/

Kuhnlein, H., & Turner, N. (1991). Traditional Plant Foods of Canadian Indigenous Peoples: Nutrition, Botany and Use. Amsterdam, NL: Gordon and Breach.

Long, L. (2015). Ethnic American Food Today: A Cultural Encyclopedia, Volume 1. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Morin, P. (2009). Banockology, A Community Collaboration of Stories, Art, Essays, Recipes and Poems about Bannock. Victoria, BC: Open Space Arts Societ y.

Turner, N. (1997). Food Plants of the Interior First Peoples. Victoria, BC: Royal BC Museum.

Palmer, A. (2005). Maps of Experience: The Anchoring of Land to Story in Secwepemc Discourse. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Christy Shaw

Greetings everyone. This is Christy Shaw, residing in Revelstoke, British Columbia, Canada. I have been enrolled in the Ethnobotany Certificate Program since the summer of 2016. I have long had an interest in plants as medicine, but I always felt disconnected from their origins and traditional uses, even through my training as a Chartered Herbalist. I wanted to further my knowledge of plants and the relationships people have with plants, and this looked like the perfect course to do so. I am not sure where this certificate will take me, but it will be a great basis for further studies. I own and operate a health food store in my community, and spend my free time traipsing through the woods, always taking the time to stop and smell the roses and taste the snowflakes.


Bannock.

The Métis call bannock la galette. Photo circa 1900, Saskatchewan.

Carbohydrate-rich and simple to make, bannock soon became a staple for Indigenous people across Canada. It goes without saying, however, that part of this was also due to colonization and the removal of Indigenous peoples from their land and traditional food sources (Colombo, 2006). Rations of flour, lard, sugar and eggs became the norm and bannock became a deep-rooted part of Indigenous culture. This can be a tricky subject, and I won’t delve into this very much, but what I have found during my research is that cooking, sharing, and eating bannock can be an empowering experience for all.

“Bannock can go far and can feed many, but it has to be done with love,’ she said, standing in the newly renovated cafe. “Bannock was what we had to eat, but now I want to pay homage to the dignity of our women who have learned to turn a negative into a positive’ (Gilpin, 2017).

The Ethnobotany of Bannock:

Folklorist and food writer Lucy Long writes that “prior to the loss of traditional foods, most indigenous people had some version of a breadlike staple, often called bannock, made of ground bread root, acorn, bean, or corn flour mixed with water and fried in animal fat or cooked on hot, flat stones’ (2015, pg. 446).

Ethnobotanist Nancy Turner reiterates this in an article about bannock, by suggesting “unleavened breads made from the starch/flour of bracken rhizomes were probably “cooked/baked on rocks over the fire, in sand, or in cooking pits or earth ovens’ (Bell, 2018). Another example of a pre-colonial version of bannock was camas bulbs that were baked, dried and chopped or flattened, then shaped into cakes or loaves (Colombo, 2016).

Some Interior First Nations cooked black tree lichen, Bryoria fremontii Tuck., and dried them into cakes, and, similar to bannock, they were eaten on long journeys as a sustainer (Turner, 1997, pg. 35).

A modern version of black lichen bread. Retrieved from: https://www.amazing-food.com/lichen-bread/

Post-colonial bannock, the white flour variety, is widely intertwined with ethnobotany.

The Nlaka’pamux of British Columbia added bitterroot, Lewisia rediviva, to their bannock. It was considered a delicacy, almost a desert, often alongside Saskatoon berries, Amelanchier alnifoli (Bandringa, 1999, pg. 22).

Black mountain huckleberries, or mountain bilberries, Vaccinium membranaceum, were added to bannock by the Chipewyan people of northern Saskatchewan (Kuhnlein & Turner, 1991, pg. 118).

The Woods Cree, also of Saskatchewan, made birch sap into a syrup, thickening it with flour, and ate in on bannock (Kuhnlein & Turner, 1991, pg. 90).

Some Indigenous groups wrapped the dough around a green, hardwood stick and toasted it over an open fire (Bannock Awareness, 2001, pg. 16).

Bannock on a stick. Retrieved from: https://www.canadiangeographic.ca/article/bannock-recipe

Cultural Value of Bannock:

In researching the history of bannock in Canada, I stumbled across a book called Bannockology. A Community Collaboration of Stories, Art, Essays, Recipes and Poems about Bannock. I contacted the publisher to obtain a copy, and they generously gifted me one. It was compiled by Peter Morin, the organizer of the “People’s Bannock.’ This event’s intention was to bring awareness to mineral extraction in Northern B.C. by attempting to make the world’s largest bannock (at 50 feet long!) – “Bannockology is an anthology of anecdotes, recipes, poetry and insights about bannock, the ubiquitous bread that is a part of every First Nations social event, private or public.’

With over 30 entries about bannock, Bannockology helps define how important this staple is to Indigenous peoples across Canada:

Bannock is sort of like our “Jesus-bread’, it is the “flesh’ of our culture.

Bannock has two distinct functions amongst us Indian peoples: first function — It fills our bellies, second function — it fills our souls’

Nanette Jackson (Morin, 2009, pg. 25).

I found many other quotes in various publications that reflect how culturally important bannock is to virtually every Indigenous group in Canada:

“Yet, many Elders tell me that they get sick on ‘Whiteman’s foods,’ and that they are much happier eating wind-dried salmon and bannock every day. It is also the case that salmon, bannock, berries, and other ‘Indian foods’ are locally prepared by people whom one knows, and under known circumstances. Such food, ‘prepared with love,’ provides far more than physical nourishment’ (Palmer, 2005, pg. 76).

For the Inuit, this staple was a “legacy of the nineteenth century contact with whalers’ (Billson & Mancini, 2007, pg. 42). Made with seal oil so it would not freeze, bannock became a traditional food of the Inuit. When researching their book “Inuit Women, Their Powerful Spirit in a Century of Change, authors Billson and Mancini did some more informal “natural gathering’ interviews with Inuit women over tea and bannock (xiv). This simple offering (of bannock) shows the importance of bannock in the Inuit culture.

Annie Pootoogook, Coleman Stove with Robin Hood Flour and Tenderflake. 2004. The modern makings of bannock.

When I was in the Canadian Arctic last summer, I had the pleasure on numerous occasions to eat bannock made by an Inuk I was working with. There was even a recipe for bannock on the camp fridge which was at 81.4 degrees north! Inuit bannock, or palauga, is rich part of the Inuit heritage.

Recipe for bannock on the fridge at camp. Quttinirpaaq National Park. Ellesmere Island. 81.4 degrees north!

Bannock with muskox chili that I made in the Arctic last summer.

Bannock plays a vital role in the lives of Indigenous peoples as a traditional food throughout Canada.

“Bannock is viewed as an important food for Aboriginal residents of Winnipeg’s North End neighbourhood, despite its historical associations with European settlers. Bannock is associated with family histories, cultural events and ceremonies, and food security. Bannock is seen as having a deep connection to identity’ (Cyr & Slater, 2016, pg., 59).

“Bread – white, store bought bread is not the way of our people, it’s not! Bannock is the way. It’s a staple food, it gives you strength it gives you energy. It just makes you strong. It’s so important to eat bannock, to have bannock’ (Cyr & Slater, 2016, pg., 63).

Making Bannock:

With literally hundreds and hundreds of recipes to choose from, I decided on a recipe I found in a publication called “Bannock Awareness.’ This publication was produced by The Ministry of Forests and Range in 2001 to commemorate Aboriginal Awareness Day, which is celebrated annually on the 21st day of June. “Bannock Awareness’ is a collection of favourite bannock related recipes and of little known facts about First Nations history and culture in British Columbia, the province where I live.

Basic Bannock Recipe – Fried or Stick-cooked

1 cup flour

1 tsp baking powder

1/4 tsp salt

3 tbsp margarine/butter

2 tbsp skim milk powder (optional)

Sift together the dry ingredients. Cut in the margarine until the mixture resembles a coarse meal (at this point it can be sealed it in a ziplock bag for field use). Grease and heat a frying pan. Working quickly, add enough COLD water to the pre-packaged dry mix to make a firm dough. Once the water is thoroughly mixed into the dough, form the dough into cakes about 1/2 inch thick. Dust the cakes lightly with flour to make them easier to handle. Lay the bannock cakes in the warm frying pan. Hold them over the heat, rotating the pan a little. Once a bottom crust has formed and the dough has hardened enough to hold together, you can turn the bannock cakes. Cooking takes 12-15 minutes. If you are in the field and you don’t have a frying pan, make a thicker dough by adding less water and roll the dough into a long ribbon (no wider than 1 inch). Wind this around a preheated green, hardwood stick and cook about 8 inches over a fire, turning occasionally, until the bannock is cooked.

Delicious bannock with Nancy Turner jam!

Conclusion:

Bannock is delicious!

And despite its ties to colonialism in Canada, bannock embodies Indigenous culture and identity, both past and present. Whether made of white flour or ground camas bulbs, on a stick or in a pan, with berries, birch syrup or butter, bannock is an important traditional Indigenous food. With deep ethnobotanical roots, bannock has been integrated into the lives of the many Indigenous groups in Canada, creating comfort and community during many uncertain times.

“Fill your heart with happiness and love before starting to bake or cook this will be your secret ingredient that will make this recipe taste so good! Think of the smiling faces of your family and friends as they enjoy this wonderful bannock that you have taken the time to prepare with your own loving hands”

Kate Brant (Morin, 2009, pg. 62).

References:

Ballantyne, E. (2014). Dechinta Bush University. Mobilizing a knowledge economy of reciprocity, resurgence, and decolonization. Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 67-85. Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society.

Bandringa, R. (1999). The Ethnobotany and Descriptive Ecology of Bitterroot, Lewisia rediviva Pursh (Portulacaceae), in the Lower Thompson River Valley, British Columbia: A Salient Root Food of the Nlaka’pamux First Nation (Master’s thesis). The University of Victoria. Retrieved January 18, 2108, from https://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/ubctheses/831/items/1.0099512

Bell, A. (2018, August 4). Bannock and Canada’s First Peoples. Retrieved January 18, 2018, from https://fooddaycanada.ca/featured-article/bannock-canadas-first-peoples/

Billson, J., & Mancini, K. (2007). Inuit Women Their Powerful Spirit in a Century of Change. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Blackstock, M. (2001). Bannock Awareness. Retrieved January 4, 2018, from https://www.for.gov.bc.ca/rsi/fnb/bannockawareness.pdf

Colombo, J. (2006, February 6). Bannock. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 18, 2018, from https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/bannock/

Cyr, M., & Slater, J. (2016). Got Bannock? Traditional Indigenous Bread in Winnipeg’s North End. Chapter 4. Retrieved January 17, 2018, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311202983_Got_Bannock_Traditional_Indigenous_Bread_in_Winnipeg%27s_North_End

Gilpin, E. (2017, July 11). At ‘BigHeart Bannock,’ Resilience and Resistance in Food Made Well. The Tyee. Retrieved January 4, 2018, from https://thetyee.ca/Culture/2017/07/11/BigHeart-Bannock-Resilience-Resistance-Food/

Kuhnlein, H., & Turner, N. (1991). Traditional Plant Foods of Canadian Indigenous Peoples: Nutrition, Botany and Use. Amsterdam, NL: Gordon and Breach.

Long, L. (2015). Ethnic American Food Today: A Cultural Encyclopedia, Volume 1. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Morin, P. (2009). Banockology, A Community Collaboration of Stories, Art, Essays, Recipes and Poems about Bannock. Victoria, BC: Open Space Arts Societ y.

Turner, N. (1997). Food Plants of the Interior First Peoples. Victoria, BC: Royal BC Museum.

Palmer, A. (2005). Maps of Experience: The Anchoring of Land to Story in Secwepemc Discourse. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Christy Shaw

Greetings everyone. This is Christy Shaw, residing in Revelstoke, British Columbia, Canada. I have been enrolled in the Ethnobotany Certificate Program since the summer of 2016. I have long had an interest in plants as medicine, but I always felt disconnected from their origins and traditional uses, even through my training as a Chartered Herbalist. I wanted to further my knowledge of plants and the relationships people have with plants, and this looked like the perfect course to do so. I am not sure where this certificate will take me, but it will be a great basis for further studies. I own and operate a health food store in my community, and spend my free time traipsing through the woods, always taking the time to stop and smell the roses and taste the snowflakes.


Bannock.

The Métis call bannock la galette. Photo circa 1900, Saskatchewan.

Carbohydrate-rich and simple to make, bannock soon became a staple for Indigenous people across Canada. It goes without saying, however, that part of this was also due to colonization and the removal of Indigenous peoples from their land and traditional food sources (Colombo, 2006). Rations of flour, lard, sugar and eggs became the norm and bannock became a deep-rooted part of Indigenous culture. This can be a tricky subject, and I won’t delve into this very much, but what I have found during my research is that cooking, sharing, and eating bannock can be an empowering experience for all.

“Bannock can go far and can feed many, but it has to be done with love,’ she said, standing in the newly renovated cafe. “Bannock was what we had to eat, but now I want to pay homage to the dignity of our women who have learned to turn a negative into a positive’ (Gilpin, 2017).

The Ethnobotany of Bannock:

Folklorist and food writer Lucy Long writes that “prior to the loss of traditional foods, most indigenous people had some version of a breadlike staple, often called bannock, made of ground bread root, acorn, bean, or corn flour mixed with water and fried in animal fat or cooked on hot, flat stones’ (2015, pg. 446).

Ethnobotanist Nancy Turner reiterates this in an article about bannock, by suggesting “unleavened breads made from the starch/flour of bracken rhizomes were probably “cooked/baked on rocks over the fire, in sand, or in cooking pits or earth ovens’ (Bell, 2018). Another example of a pre-colonial version of bannock was camas bulbs that were baked, dried and chopped or flattened, then shaped into cakes or loaves (Colombo, 2016).

Some Interior First Nations cooked black tree lichen, Bryoria fremontii Tuck., and dried them into cakes, and, similar to bannock, they were eaten on long journeys as a sustainer (Turner, 1997, pg. 35).

A modern version of black lichen bread. Retrieved from: https://www.amazing-food.com/lichen-bread/

Post-colonial bannock, the white flour variety, is widely intertwined with ethnobotany.

The Nlaka’pamux of British Columbia added bitterroot, Lewisia rediviva, to their bannock. It was considered a delicacy, almost a desert, often alongside Saskatoon berries, Amelanchier alnifoli (Bandringa, 1999, pg. 22).

Black mountain huckleberries, or mountain bilberries, Vaccinium membranaceum, were added to bannock by the Chipewyan people of northern Saskatchewan (Kuhnlein & Turner, 1991, pg. 118).

The Woods Cree, also of Saskatchewan, made birch sap into a syrup, thickening it with flour, and ate in on bannock (Kuhnlein & Turner, 1991, pg. 90).

Some Indigenous groups wrapped the dough around a green, hardwood stick and toasted it over an open fire (Bannock Awareness, 2001, pg. 16).

Bannock on a stick. Retrieved from: https://www.canadiangeographic.ca/article/bannock-recipe

Cultural Value of Bannock:

In researching the history of bannock in Canada, I stumbled across a book called Bannockology. A Community Collaboration of Stories, Art, Essays, Recipes and Poems about Bannock. I contacted the publisher to obtain a copy, and they generously gifted me one. It was compiled by Peter Morin, the organizer of the “People’s Bannock.’ This event’s intention was to bring awareness to mineral extraction in Northern B.C. by attempting to make the world’s largest bannock (at 50 feet long!) – “Bannockology is an anthology of anecdotes, recipes, poetry and insights about bannock, the ubiquitous bread that is a part of every First Nations social event, private or public.’

With over 30 entries about bannock, Bannockology helps define how important this staple is to Indigenous peoples across Canada:

Bannock is sort of like our “Jesus-bread’, it is the “flesh’ of our culture.

Bannock has two distinct functions amongst us Indian peoples: first function — It fills our bellies, second function — it fills our souls’

Nanette Jackson (Morin, 2009, pg. 25).

I found many other quotes in various publications that reflect how culturally important bannock is to virtually every Indigenous group in Canada:

“Yet, many Elders tell me that they get sick on ‘Whiteman’s foods,’ and that they are much happier eating wind-dried salmon and bannock every day. It is also the case that salmon, bannock, berries, and other ‘Indian foods’ are locally prepared by people whom one knows, and under known circumstances. Such food, ‘prepared with love,’ provides far more than physical nourishment’ (Palmer, 2005, pg. 76).

For the Inuit, this staple was a “legacy of the nineteenth century contact with whalers’ (Billson & Mancini, 2007, pg. 42). Made with seal oil so it would not freeze, bannock became a traditional food of the Inuit. When researching their book “Inuit Women, Their Powerful Spirit in a Century of Change, authors Billson and Mancini did some more informal “natural gathering’ interviews with Inuit women over tea and bannock (xiv). This simple offering (of bannock) shows the importance of bannock in the Inuit culture.

Annie Pootoogook, Coleman Stove with Robin Hood Flour and Tenderflake. 2004. The modern makings of bannock.

When I was in the Canadian Arctic last summer, I had the pleasure on numerous occasions to eat bannock made by an Inuk I was working with. There was even a recipe for bannock on the camp fridge which was at 81.4 degrees north! Inuit bannock, or palauga, is rich part of the Inuit heritage.

Recipe for bannock on the fridge at camp. Quttinirpaaq National Park. Ellesmere Island. 81.4 degrees north!

Bannock with muskox chili that I made in the Arctic last summer.

Bannock plays a vital role in the lives of Indigenous peoples as a traditional food throughout Canada.

“Bannock is viewed as an important food for Aboriginal residents of Winnipeg’s North End neighbourhood, despite its historical associations with European settlers. Bannock is associated with family histories, cultural events and ceremonies, and food security. Bannock is seen as having a deep connection to identity’ (Cyr & Slater, 2016, pg., 59).

“Bread – white, store bought bread is not the way of our people, it’s not! Bannock is the way. It’s a staple food, it gives you strength it gives you energy. It just makes you strong. It’s so important to eat bannock, to have bannock’ (Cyr & Slater, 2016, pg., 63).

Making Bannock:

With literally hundreds and hundreds of recipes to choose from, I decided on a recipe I found in a publication called “Bannock Awareness.’ This publication was produced by The Ministry of Forests and Range in 2001 to commemorate Aboriginal Awareness Day, which is celebrated annually on the 21st day of June. “Bannock Awareness’ is a collection of favourite bannock related recipes and of little known facts about First Nations history and culture in British Columbia, the province where I live.

Basic Bannock Recipe – Fried or Stick-cooked

1 cup flour

1 tsp baking powder

1/4 tsp salt

3 tbsp margarine/butter

2 tbsp skim milk powder (optional)

Sift together the dry ingredients. Cut in the margarine until the mixture resembles a coarse meal (at this point it can be sealed it in a ziplock bag for field use). Grease and heat a frying pan. Working quickly, add enough COLD water to the pre-packaged dry mix to make a firm dough. Once the water is thoroughly mixed into the dough, form the dough into cakes about 1/2 inch thick. Dust the cakes lightly with flour to make them easier to handle. Lay the bannock cakes in the warm frying pan. Hold them over the heat, rotating the pan a little. Once a bottom crust has formed and the dough has hardened enough to hold together, you can turn the bannock cakes. Cooking takes 12-15 minutes. If you are in the field and you don’t have a frying pan, make a thicker dough by adding less water and roll the dough into a long ribbon (no wider than 1 inch). Wind this around a preheated green, hardwood stick and cook about 8 inches over a fire, turning occasionally, until the bannock is cooked.

Delicious bannock with Nancy Turner jam!

Conclusion:

Bannock is delicious!

And despite its ties to colonialism in Canada, bannock embodies Indigenous culture and identity, both past and present. Whether made of white flour or ground camas bulbs, on a stick or in a pan, with berries, birch syrup or butter, bannock is an important traditional Indigenous food. With deep ethnobotanical roots, bannock has been integrated into the lives of the many Indigenous groups in Canada, creating comfort and community during many uncertain times.

“Fill your heart with happiness and love before starting to bake or cook this will be your secret ingredient that will make this recipe taste so good! Think of the smiling faces of your family and friends as they enjoy this wonderful bannock that you have taken the time to prepare with your own loving hands”

Kate Brant (Morin, 2009, pg. 62).

References:

Ballantyne, E. (2014). Dechinta Bush University. Mobilizing a knowledge economy of reciprocity, resurgence, and decolonization. Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 67-85. Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society.

Bandringa, R. (1999). The Ethnobotany and Descriptive Ecology of Bitterroot, Lewisia rediviva Pursh (Portulacaceae), in the Lower Thompson River Valley, British Columbia: A Salient Root Food of the Nlaka’pamux First Nation (Master’s thesis). The University of Victoria. Retrieved January 18, 2108, from https://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/ubctheses/831/items/1.0099512

Bell, A. (2018, August 4). Bannock and Canada’s First Peoples. Retrieved January 18, 2018, from https://fooddaycanada.ca/featured-article/bannock-canadas-first-peoples/

Billson, J., & Mancini, K. (2007). Inuit Women Their Powerful Spirit in a Century of Change. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Blackstock, M. (2001). Bannock Awareness. Retrieved January 4, 2018, from https://www.for.gov.bc.ca/rsi/fnb/bannockawareness.pdf

Colombo, J. (2006, February 6). Bannock. The Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 18, 2018, from https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/bannock/

Cyr, M., & Slater, J. (2016). Got Bannock? Traditional Indigenous Bread in Winnipeg’s North End. Chapter 4. Retrieved January 17, 2018, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/311202983_Got_Bannock_Traditional_Indigenous_Bread_in_Winnipeg%27s_North_End

Gilpin, E. (2017, July 11). At ‘BigHeart Bannock,’ Resilience and Resistance in Food Made Well. The Tyee. Retrieved January 4, 2018, from https://thetyee.ca/Culture/2017/07/11/BigHeart-Bannock-Resilience-Resistance-Food/

Kuhnlein, H., & Turner, N. (1991). Traditional Plant Foods of Canadian Indigenous Peoples: Nutrition, Botany and Use. Amsterdam, NL: Gordon and Breach.

Long, L. (2015). Ethnic American Food Today: A Cultural Encyclopedia, Volume 1. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Morin, P. (2009). Banockology, A Community Collaboration of Stories, Art, Essays, Recipes and Poems about Bannock. Victoria, BC: Open Space Arts Societ y.

Turner, N. (1997). Food Plants of the Interior First Peoples. Victoria, BC: Royal BC Museum.

Palmer, A. (2005). Maps of Experience: The Anchoring of Land to Story in Secwepemc Discourse. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Christy Shaw

Greetings everyone. This is Christy Shaw, residing in Revelstoke, British Columbia, Canada. I have been enrolled in the Ethnobotany Certificate Program since the summer of 2016. I have long had an interest in plants as medicine, but I always felt disconnected from their origins and traditional uses, even through my training as a Chartered Herbalist. I wanted to further my knowledge of plants and the relationships people have with plants, and this looked like the perfect course to do so. I am not sure where this certificate will take me, but it will be a great basis for further studies. I own and operate a health food store in my community, and spend my free time traipsing through the woods, always taking the time to stop and smell the roses and taste the snowflakes.


Watch the video: Μετοχές Για Αρχαρίους. Μετοχές Που Μπορείς Να Κρατήσεις Για Πάντα. Powered by Freedom24 (May 2022).